Rocks, Resources and Scenery

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  • Created by: Qiao-Chu
  • Created on: 10-04-13 11:42
Geological timescale
Period of geological time since life became abundant 543 million years ago, which geologists have divided into eras and periods
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Crust
Outer layer of the earth
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Igneous rocks
Rockes formed from the cooling of molten magma
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Sedimentary rocks
Most commonly, rocks formed from the accumulation of sediment on the sea floor
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Metamorphic rocks
Rocks which have undergone a change in their chemistry and texture as a result of heat or pressure
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Rock cycle
Connections between the three rock types shown in the form of a diagram
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Weathering
The breakup or decay of rocks in their original place or close to the earth's surface
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Mechanical weathering
Weathering that does not involve chemical change
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Scree
Deposits of angular rock fragments found at the foot of rock outcrops
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Chemical weathering
Weathering that involves a chemical change taking place
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Biological weathering
Weathering caused by living organisms such as tree roots or burrowing animals
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Freeze-thaw weathering
Weathering involving repeated cycles of freezing and thawing
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Pores
Holes in rocks
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Exfoliation
Flaking of the outer surface of rocks mainly caused by repeated cycles of hot and cold
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Solution
Dissolving of rocks or minerals by rainwater
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Carbonation
Weathering of limestone and chalk by acidic rainwater
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Batholith
A huge irregular-shaped mass of intrusive igneous rock that only reaches the ground when the overlying rocks are removed
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Joints
Cracks that may run vertically or horizontally through rock
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Impermeable rock
A rock that does not allow water to pass through it
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Tor
An isolated outcrop of tock on a hilltop, typically found in granite landscapes
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Mass movement
The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity
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Cliff
A steep or vertical face of rock at the coast
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Permeable rock
A rock that allows water to pass through it
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Water table
The upper surface of underground water
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Spring
Water re-emerging from the rock onto the ground surface. Springs often occur as a line of springs (springline) at the base of a scarp slope
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Vale
In the landscape, a flat plain typically formed on clay
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Escarpment/cuesta
An outcrop of chalk comprising a steep scarp slope and a more gentle dip slope
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Dry valley
A valley formed by a river during a wetter period in the past but now without a river
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Gorge
A steep-sided deep valley that may be formed by caverns collapsing
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Limestone pavement
A bare rocky surface with distinctive blocks (clients) and enlarged joints (grykes)
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Swallow hole
An enlarged joint into which water falls
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Cavern
A large underground cave
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Resurgence
A stream that emerges from underground
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Stalactite
An icicle-like calcite feature hanging down from a cavern roof
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Stalagmite
A stumpy calcite feature formed on a cavern floor
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Pillar
A calcite feature stretching from floor to ceiling in a cavern
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Curtain
A broad deposit of calcite usually formed when water emerges along a crack in a cavern
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Cement
Mortar used in building, made from crushed limestone and shale
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Syncline
The lower arc of the fold in fold mountains
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Aquifer
An underground reservoir of water stored in pores and/or joints in rocks e.g. chalk
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Aggregate
Crushed stone made from tough rocks such as limestone, used in the construction industry and in road building
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Quarry restoration
Restoring or improving the environmental quality of a quarry, either during or after its operation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Outer layer of the earth

Back

Crust

Card 3

Front

Rockes formed from the cooling of molten magma

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Most commonly, rocks formed from the accumulation of sediment on the sea floor

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Rocks which have undergone a change in their chemistry and texture as a result of heat or pressure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Mr A Gibson

41 concise and essential definitions and terms to help you prepare for this unit. Get these printed off!

cherryhazel16

I can't highlight anything

FilthyFrank-chin chin realm

You guys seen chin chin?

HairyEgg

no

HairyEgg

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