Rocks and Geology

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What is the meaning of erosion?
The removal of weathered material by the action of wind, water or ice.
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What is an igneous rock?
A rock formed from molten rock.
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What is a metamorphic rock?
Rocks that have been formed form igneous or sedimentary rocks subjected to heat & pressure.
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What is a sedimentary rock?
Rocks formed from deposits that are originally from older rocks and living organisms.
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Give me an example of chemical weathering.
Weak acid dissolves rock.
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Give me and example of biological weathering.
Rocks are broken down by plants and animals.
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What is onion-skin weathering?
Layers of rock flake off due to expansion and contraction.
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What is freeze-thaw weathering?
Pieces of rock break off due to expansion.
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Why do some igneous tocks have larger crystals than others?
The quicker the magma cools, the smaller the crystals.
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Why are some types of rocks more likely to contain fossils than others?
Sedimentary rocks are most likely to contain fossils because the remains of organisms get trapped between the layers of sediment.
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What is deposition?
Deposition is a low energy process inn which transported materialis deposited.
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What is transportation?
Transportation is the process in which eroded rock is carried away.
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What percentage of the earth's crust is made from metamorphic rocks?
28%
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What rock does limestone turn into to become metamorphic?
It turns into marble.
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What rock does shale turn into to become metamorphic?
It turns into slate.
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Where is freeze-thaw most likely to take place?
In cold mountainous environments.
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Define the term 'porous rock'.
A porous rock is a rock that can absorb water.
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Name 3 types of sedimentary rocks.
Chalk, shale and limestone.
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Name 3 types of metamorphic rocks.
Marble, slate and gneiss.
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Name 3 types of igneous rocks.
Obsidian, basalt and granite.
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What is an intrusive rock?
A rock that is formed below the surface of the earth.
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What is an extrusive rock?
A rock that is formed on the surface of the earth.
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What is lava?
Molten rock that has been erupted.
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What is magma?
Molten rock below the earth's crust.
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What is a geode?
A small cavity inside a rock, lined with crystals formed by the cooling of lava or magma.
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What is a volcano?
A hill/mountain through which magma is erupted out onto the earth's surface.
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How are fossils formed?
The remains of organisms become trapped between layers of sediment.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an igneous rock?

Back

A rock formed from molten rock.

Card 3

Front

What is a metamorphic rock?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a sedimentary rock?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give me an example of chemical weathering.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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