Rivers and Coasts Definitions

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  • Created by: 10Odavies
  • Created on: 30-09-14 17:40
Evaporation
Water turning into water vapour.
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Evapotranspiration
The sum of evaporation from the Earth's surface together with the transpiration of plants.
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Groundwater Flow
Movement of water underground.
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Infiltration
Seeping of water into soil.
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Interception
Collection of water by vegetation.
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Precipitation
moisture that falls from the atmosphere in any form.
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Surface runoff
All water flowing on the Earth's surface.
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Sustainable
Capable of existing long-term.
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Through-flow
Movement of water through soil.
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Transpiration
Loss of moisture from plants.
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Water Table
The upper level of underground water.
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Bedload
Larger particles moved along a river bed.
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Erosion
The wearing away and removal of rocks by the action of water, wind or ice.
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Freeze-thaw
The continued freezing and thawing of moisture in rocks that will eventually cause them to break.
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Weathering
Breaking up of rocks by the action of weather, plants, animals and chemical processes.
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Hydro-electricity
Electricity produced by flowing water.
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Lateral Erosion
Erosion on the sides of a valley.
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Vertical Erosion
Downward erosion of a river bed.
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Delta
Where a river breaks into many distributaries before it reaches the sea.
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Estuary
Tidal part of a river mouth.
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Flood plain
Flat area next to a river that is liable to flood.
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Meanders
Large bends in a river.
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Reclaimed land
Land that has been drained so that it can be used for development.
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Discharge
The volume of water in a river passing a certain point in a given time, measured in cumecs (cubic metres per second)
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Impermeable
A surface that does not allow water to pass through it.
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Permeable
A surface that allows water to pass through it.
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Irrigation
Artificial watering of the land.
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Monsoon
Annual period of heavy rainfall in Asia.
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Storm Surge
Extreme storm waves created by strong winds and low pressure, leading to higher sea levels and flooding.
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Hard Engineering
Use of concrete barriers to control water.
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Catchment Flood Management Plans (CFMPs)
Plans setting out strategies to reduce flood risks in a river basin over 50-100 years.
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Geology
The nature and structure of rocks.
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Marine Erosion
The wearing away of rocks by the action of the sea.
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Sub-aerial processes
Processes active on the face and top of cliffs.
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Backwash
The movement of water down a beach by the action of gravity.
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Destructive Waves
Waves that erode coastlines.
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Swash
The force of breaking wavs moving up a beach.
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Consolidated rock
Rock with a strong structure that is hard to break down.
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Dredging
Taking sediment from a river or sea bed.
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Constructive Waves
Waves that build up beach material to create landforms.
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Groyne
Wooden of concrete construction built across a beach.
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Longshore drift
The movement of material along a coastline by the action of the waves.
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Prevailing Wind
Most frequent wind direction.
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Nature Reserve
Area set aside to preserve plants and animals.
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Salt Marsh
An area of tidal mudflats, partially flooded at high tide.
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Silt
Very fine sediment deposited by flowing water.
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Mangroves
Evergreen trees and shrubs growing in tropical coastal areas, whose roots trap sediment and aid beach development
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Tsunami
Tidal wave caused by an underwater earthquake.
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Beach replenishment
Building up the beach by pumping sand or shingle onto it.
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Sustainable management.
Long-term management that does not harm people or enviroments.
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Amenity Value
Used for recreational and leisure activities.
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Managed Retreat
Allowing the sea to flood lowland areas.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The sum of evaporation from the Earth's surface together with the transpiration of plants.

Back

Evapotranspiration

Card 3

Front

Movement of water underground.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Seeping of water into soil.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Collection of water by vegetation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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