Rivers

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Evaporation
The process by which liquid water is transformed into water vapour, which is a gas. A large amount of energy is required for this to occur. The energy is usually provided by heat from the sun or by wind.
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Evapotranspiration
The total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from vegetated land surface. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from a plant through stomata in its leaves.
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Groundwater Flow
Groundwater flows at a slow but steady rate through bands of sedimentary rock. It can take thousands of years for moisture that seeps into permeable rocks deep under the surface to be returned to the drainage basin hydrological cycle
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Infiltration
The passage of water into the soil. Sandy soils let more water pass through than clay soils
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Interception
The process by which raindrops are prevented from directly reaching the soil surface. Leaves, stems and branches on trees, and herbaceous plants growing close to the surface, intercept water.
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Percolation
The downward movement of water within the rock under the soil surface
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Precipitation
Water in any form that falls from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface
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Run off
All the water that enters a river and eventually flows out of the drainage basin
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Stemflow
The water that runs down the stems and branches of plants and trees during and after rain to reach the ground. It takes place after interception occurs
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Throughfall
The water that drips off leaves during a rainstorm. It occurs when more water falls onto the interception layer of the tree canopy than can remain on the leaves
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Throughflow
The water that moves down-slope through the sub-soil, pulled by gravity
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Deposition
The laying down of solid material, in the form of sediment, on the bed of a river or on the sea floor
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Erosion
The break up of rocks by the action of rock particles being moved over the Earth's surface by water, wind and ice
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Transportation
The movement of particles from the place they were eroded to the place where they are deposited
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Incised Meander
This is caused by rejuvenation. It is a meander that has cut deeply into the floodplain, creating steep cliff-like banks
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Knick Point
Usually marked by rapids, this represents rejuvenation and is a sudden break in the long profile of the river
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Rejuvenation
An increase in the energy of a river caused by either a fall in its base lvel or and uplift in the land
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River Terrace
A narrow, flat piece of ground that runs parallel to the river on either side, above the level of the floodplain. They are usually created following a fall in base level
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Hazard
A natural event that threatens life and property. A disaster is the realisation of the hazard. Flooding is an example of a natural hazard
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from vegetated land surface. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from a plant through stomata in its leaves.

Back

Evapotranspiration

Card 3

Front

Groundwater flows at a slow but steady rate through bands of sedimentary rock. It can take thousands of years for moisture that seeps into permeable rocks deep under the surface to be returned to the drainage basin hydrological cycle

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The passage of water into the soil. Sandy soils let more water pass through than clay soils

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The process by which raindrops are prevented from directly reaching the soil surface. Leaves, stems and branches on trees, and herbaceous plants growing close to the surface, intercept water.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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