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  • Created by: vanessa
  • Created on: 18-12-13 13:46
what is desertification
productive land turning into a desert like landscape
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what is river basin
the total land area that contributes water to a river
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what is confluence
the point at which two or more rivers meet
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what is delta
land formed from river depositing sediment
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what is tributary
any river that joins another
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what is headwaters
upper streams near the mouth
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what is watershed
physical barrier showing the end of a river or beginning of another
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what is relief rainfall
water evaporates of the sea, cools and rises, turns to clouds and then rain
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what is overland flow
precipitation flows on the basin
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what is infiltration
water is transferred downwards through the rock
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what is percolation
water moves downwards through soil
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what is groundwater flow/through flow/channel flow
underground transfer of water/water moving through the soil/downhill movement of water
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what is verticals/lateral erosion
the river bed is worn away by the bed load/banks are eroded and channel widens
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how do rivers carry materials (4)
traction (large boulders roll), solution (minerals are dissolved), saltation (small pebbles bounce along), suspension (fine light material is suspended in the water)
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what are the human uses of water
recreational, domestic, agricultural, industrial
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what is water deficit and water surplus
deficit = demand exceeds supply and surplus = vice versa
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what factors affect water quality
turbidity (water carrying debris), fertilisers, eutrophication, discharge from factories, disease from sewage
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what are consequences of bad water quality
cant use fish who have disease so less business, public water supply affected, carries diseases
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what is the reasons for low supply and high demand of water in spain
1. lack of rain, tourism, uneven distribution 2. tourism, growth of crops to supply to other countries, more irrigation
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what are the consequences and solutions to the water shortages in spain
1. less jobs and business, rise in food price, desertification, forest fires 2. dams, salt water to fresh water, transferred from north to south
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what are the pros and cons of the water transfer scheme in spain
pros: more jobs, support tourism cons: 18bn pounds, people leave homes for construction, loss of habitat, pollute
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advantages/disadvantages of three gorges dam?
1. 30mil been made, tourist attraction, reduce flooding, renewable energy generated, homes for people who were moved are better 2. plants killed, extinction of chinese river dolphin, sediment disrupted, fear of collapse, 1.3m people displaced
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what are the causes of the flooding in bangladesh
low lying land, densely populated, deforestation, 1m of rain per year
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what are the impacts of the flood in bangladesh
lack of jobs, loss of lives, people constantly moving homes (7million made homeless in Dhaka when 75% of city flooded)
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what are the solutions to the flooding in bangladesh
flood action plan funded my world bank, flood warning systems in place, underground drains, raised homes, emercecy shelters, sirens, embankments and dams
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how are levees formed
coarse material is deposited close to the river chilled and builds up forming levees then it is higher than the surrounding land, the finer material is deposited further away
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what is a levee
high banks of silt along the banks of the river
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how are waterfalls formed
splash back from waterfall erodes by hydraulic power, then the softer rocks at the bottom are undercut. the overhang of harder collapses and the hard cap rock overhangs. the waterfall retreats upstream
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how do ox bow lakes form
erosion of the outer bank, deposition of inside bend, neck of meander narrows, neck of meander bleached in flooding forming the ox bow lake
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is river basin


the total land area that contributes water to a river

Card 3


what is confluence


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is delta


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what is tributary


Preview of the front of card 5
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