Rivers Flash cards

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Evaporation
The process by which liquid water is transformed into water vapour; this procexs is usually provided by the heat from the Sun, or by the movement of air.
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Evapotranspiration
The total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from a vegetated land surface. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from a plant through stomata; which are very small pores in its leaves
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Groundwater Flow
The slowest transfer of water within the drainage basin. It provides the main input of water into a river during drought or dry seasons; flows at a slow but steady rate through layers of sedimentary rocks
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Infiltration
The passage of rainwater into the soil; takes place relatively quickly at the start of a storm
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Interception
The process by which raindrops are prevented from directly reaching the soil surface. Leaves, stems and branches from trees cause this interception
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Percolation
The downward movement of water within the rock under the soil surface. The rate of percolation depends on the rock type. Impermeable rock types mean no percolation or groundwater flow
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Precipitation
Water in any form that falls from the atmosphere to the surface, includes rain, snow, hail, and sleet.
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Runoff
All the water that enters a river and eventually flows out of a drainage basin, can be quantified by measuring the discharge
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Stemflow
The water that runs down the stems and branches of plants and trees during and after rain to reach the ground. Takes place after interception has occured
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Throughfall
The water that drips off leaves during a rainstorm. It occurs when more water falls onto the interception layer of the tree canopy than can remain on the leaves.
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Throughflow
The water that moves down-slope through the subsoil, pulled by gravity. It is particulary effective when underlying impermeable rock prevents percolation
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Deposition
The laying down of solid material, in the form of sediment, on the bed of a river or on the sea floor.
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Erosion
The break up of rocks by the action of rock particles being moved over the Earths surface by water, wind and ice.
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Transportation
The movement of particles from the place they were eroded from to the place where they will be deposited.
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Potholes
Potholes are cylindrical holes drilled into the rocky bed of a river by turbulent high-velocity water loaded with pebbles. The pebbles become trapped in slight hollows and vertical eddies in the water that ground holes in the rock by abrasion.
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Braided Channels
Braiding occurs when the river is forced to split into several channels seperated by islands. It is a feature of rivers that are supplied with large loads of sand and gravel. Most likely to occur with a river with variable dishcarges.
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Meanders
meanders are sinuous bends in a river
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Helicoidal Flow
Helicoidal flow is the corkscrew erosive movement of water that moves load around the river bed causing erosion.
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Oxbow Lakes
Oxbow lakes are features of both erosion and deposition, they are horseshoe shaped lakes seperated from an adjacent river; this water is also stagnant and the lake eventually silts up
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Meander scar
a cresent shaped marsh left by an oxbow lake
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Levees
A levee is a small raised bank; these naturally occur by the flooding of floodpains next to thr river with load trapped and forming these banks; usually found in the lower and middle course.
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Floodplains
floodplains are flat areas of land on either side of rivers that are prone to flooding when the river overflows; these plains are rich in minerals and are usually used for farming.
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Deltas
A delta is a feature of deposition that is located at the mouth of a river as it enters the sea or a lake. As floculation occurs the sediment is sropped that creates the delta. Deltas occur when the rate of depostion is the highest.
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Floculation
Floculation occurs as fresh water mixes with seawater and clay particles coagulate due to this chemical reaction
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Knick Points
Knick points is a sudden break or irregularity in the gradient along the long profile of a river; an example is a waterfall
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River terraces
A river terrace is a remenant of a former floodplain which has been left after rejuvenation of a river. As it renews its downcutting the river sinks to create a lower river channel.
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Ingrown Meander
A meander that becomes asymetrical with steeper cliffs on the outer bends and slip off slopes on the inner bend
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Hazard
A natural event that threatens life and property A disaster is the realisation of the hazard. and example would be flooding
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River Managment
River basins are subject to strategies designed to prevent flooding and to ensure that there is an adequate supply of water
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Deforestation
The removal of large amounts of trees and vegetation in an area
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Channelisation
The lining of a river channel by adding concrete and straightening the channel.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from a vegetated land surface. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from a plant through stomata; which are very small pores in its leaves

Back

Evapotranspiration

Card 3

Front

The slowest transfer of water within the drainage basin. It provides the main input of water into a river during drought or dry seasons; flows at a slow but steady rate through layers of sedimentary rocks

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The passage of rainwater into the soil; takes place relatively quickly at the start of a storm

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The process by which raindrops are prevented from directly reaching the soil surface. Leaves, stems and branches from trees cause this interception

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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