Rivers and Coasts Key Terms

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  • Created by: annanolan
  • Created on: 13-09-16 18:31
Evaporation
water turning into water vapour
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Evapotranspiration
the sum of evaporation from the Earth's surface together with the transpiration of plants
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Groundwater flow
movement of water underground through rocks
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Infiltration
seeping of water into soil
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Interception
collection of water by vegetation
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Precipitation
moisture that falls from the atmosphere in any form
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Surface runoff
all water flowing on the Earth's surface
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Sustainable
capable of existing in the long term
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Through-flow
movement of water through the soil
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Transpiration
loss of moisture from plants
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Water table
the upper level of underground water
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Bedload
larger particles moved along a river bed
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Erosion
the wearing away and removal of rocks by the action of water, wind or ice
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Freeze-thaw
the continued freezing and thawing of moisture in rocks that will eventually cause them to break
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Weathering
breaking up of rocks by the action of weather, plants, animals and chemical processes
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Hydro-electricity
electricity produced by flowing water
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Lateral erosion
erosion of the sides of a valley
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Vertical erosion
downward erosion of a river bed
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Delta
where a river breaks into many distributaries before it reaches the sea
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Estuary
tidal part of a river mouth
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Flood plain
flat area by the side of a river which is liable to flood
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Meanders
large bends in a river
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Reclaimed land
land that has been drained so that it can be used for development
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Discharge
the volume of water in a river passing a point in a given time, measured in cumecs (cubic metres per second)
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Impermeable
a surface that does not allow water to pass through it
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Permeable
a surface that allows water to pass through it
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Irrigation
artificial watering of the land
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Monsoon
annual period of heavy rainfall in Asia
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Storm surge
extreme storm waves created by strong winds and low pressure, leading to higher sea levels and flooding
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Catchment Flood Management Plans (CFMPs)
plans setting out strategies to reduce flood risks in a river basin over 50-100 years
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Geology
the nature and structure of rocks
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Marine erosion
the wearing away of rocks by the action of the sea
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Sub-aeriel processes
processes active on the face and top of cliffs
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Backwash
the movement of water down a beach by the action of gravity
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Destructive waves
waves that erode coastlines
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Swash
the force of breaking waves moving up a beach
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Consolidated rock
rock with strong structure that is hard to break down
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Dredging
taking sediment from river or sea bed
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Constructive waves
waves that build up beach material to create landforms
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Groyne
wooden or concrete construction built across a beach
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Longshore drift
the movement of material along a coastline by the action of the waves
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Prevailing wind
most frequent wind direction
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Nature reserve
area set aside to preserve plants and animals
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Salt marsh
an area of tidal mudflats, partially flooded at high tide
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Silt
very fine sediment deposited by flowing water
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Mangroves
evergreen trees and shrubs growing in tropical coastal areas, where roots trap sediment and aid beach development
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Tsunami
tidal wave caused by an underwater earthquake
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Beach replenishment
building up the beach by pumping sand or shingle onto it
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Amenity value
used for recreational and leisure activities
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Managed retreat
allowing the sea to flood lowland areas
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the sum of evaporation from the Earth's surface together with the transpiration of plants

Back

Evapotranspiration

Card 3

Front

movement of water underground through rocks

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

seeping of water into soil

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

collection of water by vegetation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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Comments

annanolan

All the key terms for the OCR geography rivers and coasts unit

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