Rivers

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Attrition
Rocks fall into each other causing them to weaken and bits to break off.
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Solution/Corrosion
The river flows over soluble rocks. The rock dissolves in the river.
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Abraision/Corassion
The river load hits the bed and banks causing more matirial to break off.
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Hydraulic Action
The fore of the water hitting the bed and bank. More affective in deep, fast flowing water.
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Traction
Large rocks draged it along the bed.
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Saltation
Small stones moved by bouncing.
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Suspension
Carries very fine material in the water.
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Solution
Load dessolved in water
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Vertical erosion
1st part of a valley. The river cuts down and deepens the valley.
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V shape valley
2nd part of a valley. The river widens the valley as it deepens.
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3rd part of a valley
The river widens the calley more. A flat bottom is made by erosion and deposition of meanders.
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Drainage Basin
An area drained by the river
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Tributary
A stream or small river that flows into a bigger one.
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Confluance
Where a small river joins a large one.
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Water shed
The boundary between 2 river basins. The top of the valley.
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Velocity - lowland river
Fast flowing in center, no friction against rocks or wind
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Velocity - upperland stream
Slower flowing as more friction. White water is loss of energy
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Upstream
Narrow. Shallow. Slow. Small discharge. Small amount of load. Bigger rougher load. Rougher bed. Steeper
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Downstream
Deep. Wide. Fast. High discharge. Lots of load. Small smooth load. Smooth bed. Flat.
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Wetted perimiter
length of bed and both banks added together
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Hydrolic radius
cross section area / wetted perimeter
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Levees
Raised banks along lower corse of river. Natural or artificual.
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Causes of flooding
Snow melt. Deforestation. Construction. Sudden, vast amounts of precipitation.
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Advantages of dams
Reliable water source. Improves local econamy. Reduce impact of flooding. Hydro-electric power.
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Disadvantage of Dams
Unsightly. Expensive to build. destroys local wildlife. Some people have tol lose their homes
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Hard engineering
Man-made or modifying natural oneswoth technology. Dams, Levees, Deepening/widening channel, removing meanders. MEDC
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Soft engineering
Working with natural processes and avoiding flood plains. Flood plain zoning, text flood warning, only grazing in flood plains
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The river flows over soluble rocks. The rock dissolves in the river.

Back

Solution/Corrosion

Card 3

Front

The river load hits the bed and banks causing more matirial to break off.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The fore of the water hitting the bed and bank. More affective in deep, fast flowing water.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Large rocks draged it along the bed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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