Rivers

  • Created by: bibibibra
  • Created on: 19-09-18 09:07
precipitation
water in any form which falls from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth
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evaporation
process by which liquid water transforms into vapour
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transpiration
process by which water is lost from a plant through the stoma in its leaves
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infiltration
passage of water into soil. Water drawn into soil by gravity and capillary attraction
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percolation
downward vertical movement of water within a soil. Water enters groundwater
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soil moisture storage
water found in soil
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base flow / ground water flow
part of river's discharge which is produced by groundwater slowly seeping into river bed
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ground water storage
water that collects underground in pore spaces of soil and rock. When it fills all pores, the rock is sad to be saturated
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surface storage
total volume of water held on earth's surface in lakes, ponds and puddles
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surface run-off / overland flow
movement of water over land surface, usually when ground is saturated or frozen or when precipitation is too intense for infiltration to occur
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through flow
water which moves down through subsoil. Particularly effective where further downward percolation or is prevented by underlying impermeable rock
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stem flow
water which runs down from stems and branches of plants during and after rainstorm in order to reach ground surface. Takes place after interception occurs
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through flow / drip/ dripfall
water drips on leaves during and after rainstorm. When leaf has exceeded capacity to hold water, it falls to the ground surface
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permeable
rock or surface which allows water to pass through and into it
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impermeable
rock or surface which does not allow water to pass through or into it
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porous
allows water to pass through, making use of space between pores. Rock are porous since they allow water to penetrate gaps between rock particles
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pervious
allows water to pass through due to cracks or defects.
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evapotranspiration
total of both transpiration and evaporation
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hydrological cycle
the process of recycling water
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drainage basin
area inside interfluve where water falls
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source
area which a river begins
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interfluve
a boundary between two drainage basins marked by an area of high land
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confluence
point at which 2 rivers join
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tributary
a smaller river that joins a larger river
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drainage density
total length of all streams in the basin divided by the total area of the basin
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mouth
point at which a river meets the sea
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river regime
a rivers annual pattern of discharge
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annual hydrograph
a graph showing how a river's discharge changes over the course of one year
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storm hydrograph
a graph which shows the discharge of a river during a storm
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discharge
volume of water flowing through a river during any time period at any point along the river
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velocity
refers to the rate of water movement
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lag time
time period between the peak rainfall and the peak discharge
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rising limb
period during which river discharge increases
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falling limb
period during which river discharge decreases
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antecedent discharge
discharge before a storm
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long profile
the change in altitude of the course of the river form its source, along the entire length of its channel, the the river mouth
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competence stage
the maximum size of particles that the river is capable of transporting at the baneful stage
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capacity
total amount that the river is carrying
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Hjulstorm curve
a graph showing the relationship between stream velocity and rise of sediment which is picked up, transported and deposited
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Bradshaw model
a model showing how a river channel changes as you move downstream, mainly looking at discharge and sediment
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erosion
the wearing away of the surface of the Earth
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abrasion
when a river uses its load or sediment to wear away the river bed and banks
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attraction / corrosion
when particles of sediment in the load of a river bump into each other and war each other away. Resulting in sediment becoming smaller and more rounded
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hydraulic action
direct force of flowing river water breaks material from the bed and banks
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cavitation
the force of exploding air in cracks within material
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eddies
compress and decompress water in cracks in the river bank, leading to the formation of air bubbles which explode outwards and weaken the cracks and cause pieces to break off
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sediment
produced when river erosion and other land processes break down the load into finer particles
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bed load
load which spends all or some of its time on the river bed
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transportation
the movement of sediment and load downriver by the rivers current
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suspension
light material held in the rivers current by turbulent eddies
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solution
dissolved load is derived from soluble rock and carried in rivers current
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saltation
smaller particles of bed load "hop" along the river bead
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traction
larger particles roll along the river bed by the force of the flowing water
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deposition
the depositing of leaving of material as the rivers discharge decreases
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sedimentation
when rivers sediment is deposited from still water
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flocculation
charged ions in the sea water allow clay particles to coagulate together and settle in suspension
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hydraulic radius
measured efficiency of river. cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
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wetted perimeter
the total length of the channel (bed & banks) that are in contact with the water
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cross sectional area of a rivers
width x depth of channel
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meanders
a bend in the river, caused by lateral erosion and deposition
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sinuosity
how much a river bends
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riffles
little pile where sediment has been deposited, blocking the rivers current, creating friction
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pools
deeper sections in the river bed where erosion predominates
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thalweg
the fastest flowing path of least resistance
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point bar / slip off slope
deposited feature on the inside bend of a meander made of alluvium
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asymmetrical
two diseases that don't match or are uneven
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accretion
the build up of sediment
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flood plain
the area around a river which is flooded when the river bursts its banks in a period if intense precipitation
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levee
a pile of alluvium on river banks which prevent flood water from returning to the channel
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river cliff
a steep drop from the banks to the surface to the bed of the river on the outside bend
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alluvium
deposited material
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under cut
when land is eroded at sea or river, laving unsupported material above
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helicoidal flow
a corkscrew movement that rises and falls in the zone of maximum velocity within the rivers channel
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oxbow lake
a U shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstream cuts off, creating a free standing body of water
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meander migration
the movement of a meander down-valley
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river bluff
a type of broad, rounded cliff that are formed of more resistant rock which are unable to be eroded by the river
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coarser
bigger material
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delta
depositional features when form when the river meets the sea or lake, the loss of velocity mean the rivers load is deposited (3 types : bird foot, arcuate, cuspate)
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distributaries
when deposition of sediment blocks the main channel which splits into smaller channels
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wave erosion
the wearing away of Earth's surfacer by waves crashing into the surface
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rapids
a series of mini waterfalls which are slow flowing due to large amount of friction from irregular resistant rocks on steep angles
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waterfalls
a place where water flows over a vertical drop or series of step drops
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plunge pool
formed at the base of the waterfall when rock bashes the river bed and through abrasion it creates a pool
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gorges
a steep sided valley where a rivers flows. Normally left behind when a waterfall retreats upstream
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strata
rock layers
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protruding bands
rock that sticks out in a river profile, made of different strata
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turbulent flow
circular current movement of water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

process by which liquid water transforms into vapour

Back

evaporation

Card 3

Front

process by which water is lost from a plant through the stoma in its leaves

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

passage of water into soil. Water drawn into soil by gravity and capillary attraction

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

downward vertical movement of water within a soil. Water enters groundwater

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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