Risk factors of addiction

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(Stress) Nida (1999)
Found people adopt addictive habbits due to daily hassles. Inititation, maintanence and relapse
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(Stress) Drissen et al (2008)
Found 30% drug addicts and 15% alcoholics suffered from PTSD
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(Stress AO2)Hajek et al (2010)
Found a smoker wanting to smoke = Stress. So smoking = Reduced stress
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(Stress AO2)Cloniger (1987)
Found there was two types of alcoholics. Type 1, carry out addicitive behevaiours to reduce tension. Type 2 do it to due to boredom
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(Peers)Eiser et al
Found Adolescents tend to befriend those similair to them, smokers befriend smokers and non smokers befriend non-smokers
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(Peers) McAlister eet al (1984)
Found tranisition to increased levels of smoking was due to peer encouragment and the social message that it will lead to popularity
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(Peers) Bandura (1977)
Found young people are more likely to imitate people they have most social contact with.
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(Peers) Abrams and Hogg (1990)
Group members adopt norms and behaviours central to their group for example smoking in smoker group
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(Peers AO2) Duncan et al (1995)
Exposure to peer models increase the likelihood of smoking (teens)
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(Peers AO2) Eiser et al (1989)
Perceived awards are instrumental to inititation and maintanence, smoking
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(Peers AO2) Michell (1987)
Motivated to initiate smoking due to sterotupe to specific social crowds
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(Age) Brown et al (1997)
Found influence of peerss on smoking replaced with close friends and romantic partners as you get older
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(Personality) Eysenck (1967)
Found Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism and psychoticism
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(Personality) Francis (1996)
Found link between addiction and high scores on both neuroticism and psychoticism
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(Personality) Cloniger
Found novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependance
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(Personality A02) Tosen et al (2002)
Found difficult to differentiate cause and effect on personality and addiction (causal)
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(Personality AO2) Belin et al (2008)
Found sensation seekers have no addiction however highly impulsive personality got addictied. Experiment on rats
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(Personality AO2) Weintraub et al (2010)
Found increase dopamine levels increase in impulse control disorders e.g gambling
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(Personality A02) Buckholtz et al (2010)
Indicated addictions may be more rewarding due to hypersensitive dopamine response
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Card 2


(Stress) Drissen et al (2008)


Found 30% drug addicts and 15% alcoholics suffered from PTSD

Card 3


(Stress AO2)Hajek et al (2010)


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Card 4


(Stress AO2)Cloniger (1987)


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Card 5


(Peers)Eiser et al


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