Risk Factors

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Age and gender
Higher for men than women. Increases with age. Arteries become less elastic, damage more easily. Increasing age increase risk of other factor, causing rise in the number of cases of disease.
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High blood pressure
Increases likelihood of atherosclerosis. Systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure. Sign of high blood pressure is oedema, fluid building causing swelling.
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What determines high blood pressure?
Contact blood and walls of vessels>friction. Impedes blood flow, peripheral resistance. Arteries, capillaries greater surface area, restricting slowing flow, blood pressure falls. Change in pressure in arteries by constriction and relaxation.
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Blood expelled from the heart, pressure is higher. Diastole, elastic recoil of blood vessel maintains pressure, keeps the blood flowing. Smooth muscle in walls of artery contract, vessels constrict, increasing resistance. Blood pressure raised.
Smooth muscle relaxes, lumen dilated, peripheral resistance reduces, blood pressure falls. Any factor causing arteries to constrict lead to high blood pressure, lead to atherosclerosis. High-fat diet, loss of elasticity with age, adrenaline release
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Tissue fluid formation
At the arterial end of capillary, blood is under pressure. Forces fluid and small molecules into intercellular spaces, forming tissue fluid. Capillary walls prevent blood cells and larger plasma proteins from passing through>stay in capillaries.
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Energy units
Energy usually measured in calories; 1 calorie= heat energy required to raise temp by 1cm3 of water by 1 degree. 4.18joules=1 calorie.
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Monosaccharides
Single sugar units with the general formula (CH2O)n, n=number of carbons. Hexose sugars; glucose, galactose, fructose, six carbons.
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Glucose
Glucose is important as the main sugar used by all cells in respiration. Starch and glycogen are polymers made up of glucose subunits joined together. When starch or glycogen is digested, glucose is produced. Absorbed and transported in blood to cell
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Galactose
Galactose occurs in out diet mainly as part of the disaccharide sugar lactose, which is formed in milk. The -OH group on carbon 1 and 4 lie on the opposite side of ring compared to glucose
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Fructose
Fructose is a sugar which occurs naturally in fruit, honey and veg. Its sweetness attracts animals to eat the fruits and so help with seed dispersal.
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Disaccharides
Two single sugar units join together in a condensation reaction. Water molecule is released. Bonds between to glucoses is glycosidic bond.
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Sucrose
Formed from glucose and fructose, is the usual form in which sugar is transported around the plant
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Maltose
Formed from two glucose molecules, is the disaccharide produced when amylase breaks down starch. it is found in germinating seeds such as barley as they break down their starch stores to use for food
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Lactose
Galactose and glucose make up lactose, the sugar found in milk. Solution to lactose intolerant, hydrolyse the lactose in milk, which converts disaccharide lactose into the monosaccharides glucose and galactose.
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Hydrolysis reaction
The glycosidic link between two sugar units can be split by hydrolysis. Water is added to the bond and molecule splits into two. Hydrolysis of carbohydrates take place when digested in gut, and when carbohydrate broken down to release sugars
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Diet of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides eaten, rapidly absorbed into blood, rise in blood sugar. Polysaccharides and disaccharides have to be digested into monosaccharides before absorbed. Takes time, slowly released, complex carbohydrates doesn't cause swing in blood sugar
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Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides are polymers made up from simple sugar monomers joined by glycosidic links into long chains
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Starch and glycogen
Energy storage molecules within cells. Compact with low solubility in water. They do no affect the concentration of water and so do no affect movement of water in or out of cells by osmosis
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Starch found in plants; amylose and amylopectin
Amylose; straight chain with 1,4 glycosidic links between adjacent glucose molecules. Position of bonds cause coil into a spiral shape. Amylopectin; polymer of glucose, side branches, 1,6 glycosidic bonds hold side branches to main chain
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Features of starch
Spiral structure of starch and its insoluble nature makes it an excellent storage molecule. Doesn't diffuse across cell membrane, little osmotic effect. Source of energy in humans.
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Features of glycogen
Bacteria, fungi and animals store glycogen instead of starch. Glycogen is another polymer composed of glucose molecules. Numerous side branches mean it can be rapidly hydrolysed, easy access to energy. In human, stored in liver and muscles.
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Cellulose; non-starch polysaccharide
Glucose molecules joined to form a straight chain with no branches. Indigestible in the human gut, important function in movement of material through digestive tract. Important in prevention of coronary heart disease, diabetes and bowel cancer
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Lipids
Provide over twice the energy of carbohydrates. Large amount of energy stored in a small mass. Organic molecules found in every type of cell. Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Triglyceride;3 fatty acids, 1 glycerol, 3 ester bonds
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Saturated fats
Fatty acid chain contain max number of hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbon chain long and straight. No carbon double bonds, no more hydrogen can be added. Can be pack closely together, strong intermolecular bonds between triglycerides, solid
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Unsaturated fats
Monosaturated fates;one double bond between two carbon atoms in each fatty acid chain. Polysaturated;many. Causes a kink in chain, prevent them closely packing together, weaker intermolecular bonds, liquid at room temp
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Cholesterol; short lipid molecule
Vital component of cell membranes with roles in their organisation and functioning. Sex hormones, growth hormones, bile salts produced from cholesterol. Essential for good health. Made in the liver from saturated fats, obtained in diet.
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Phospholipids
Similar to triglycerides but one of the fatty acids is replaced by a negatively charged phosphate group. Phospholipids are important components of cell membranes.
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Fats
Fats also provide a source of essential fatty acids, body needs but cant synthesise. Fat-soluble vitamins enter our diet dissolved in fats. Fats must be present in a balance diet to avoid deficiency symptoms.
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Energy balance; getting it right
Dietary reference values are estimates of the requirements and are not recommendations or goal for individuals. These include: an estimated average requirement, a lower reference nutrient intake, a higher reference nutrient intake
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Basal metabolic rate
You need a constant supply of energy to maintain essential body processes;pumping of the heart, breathing; maintaining body temp. Process go on all the time, even at rest. Energy needed is BMR and varies. Higher in; men, heavier, younger, more active
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

High blood pressure

Back

Increases likelihood of atherosclerosis. Systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure. Sign of high blood pressure is oedema, fluid building causing swelling.

Card 3

Front

What determines high blood pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Blood expelled from the heart, pressure is higher. Diastole, elastic recoil of blood vessel maintains pressure, keeps the blood flowing. Smooth muscle in walls of artery contract, vessels constrict, increasing resistance. Blood pressure raised.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tissue fluid formation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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