Risk factors of Addiction

what are the individual differences in suscepibility of drug addiction?
Drug availability in local area, prevalence of drug use in local area, neighbourhood, parental socioeconomic status, criminality in family, broken home
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What is the prospective design ?
12 year old high risk children of drug dependent parents, measures of personality, temperament and cognitive capabilities
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What children were compared?
High risk children compared to low risk children, well matched apart from not having drug/alcohol dependent parents
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When were they assessed?
16 and 19 including for drug abuse
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what was greater in the high than low risk groups?
Neurobehavioural dysregulation
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What was the neurobehavioural dysregulation of?
difficult temperament, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, disruptive behaviour disorders, tests measuring executive cognitive function
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What was the conclusion?
Those at risk of drug abuse, show disorganised behaviour, possibly stemming from an abnormality in frontal cortex causing poor decision making
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What happened to phineas gage?
Severe frontal lesion, unreliable at work, showed callous disregard, drank heavily, preserved intellectual function, working memory, plannin, frontal regions known to be involved in conscious decision making
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What was the Iowa gambling task?
4 virtual decks of cards on a computer screen, goal to win money, pps told all cards result in same level of reward, occassionally however choosing a card causes them to lose some money
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What rewards were there?
100 dollars A and B, 50 decks C and D
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What are the good and bad decks?
Decks A and B will lead to losses over the long run and decks C and D will lead to gains
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What happens to the frontal cortex?
Normally engaged in gambling task used to model real life decision making
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What happens to patients with lesions?
Do much worse than normal because they opt for high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses
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What happens to the frontal lobe throughout ages 12 to 20?
during adolescence the brain is undergoing a long changes, gray matter diminishes as neural connections are pruned, at 16 the brain is still developing and suspceptible to drugs, at 20 the changes drugs cause are more likely to stick
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What happened in the IOWA gambling challenge, who is most likely to pick the wrong cards?
Frontal lesions, adolescents, conduct disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia and drug users of all classes
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What is risky decision making seen in?
High risk children before any drug use
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What can risky decision making predict?
the onset and magnitue of drug use
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What are these proactive effects suggest?
A susceptibility factor for becoming a drug user
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Subsequently drugs can damage what?
Frontal cortex causing deficits in decision making
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What is this?
A viscous circle, existing frontal deficit may be exacerbated by drug use
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what is the perseveration in selecting the bad decks in the IOWA task be due to?
reward hypersensitivity, punishment insensitivity and faulty error detection
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What did Kenney et al sugest about chronic exposure to heroin?
rats showed an increased threshold in their brain reward system. This suggests that chrnic drug use is associated with a decrease in reward senstivity
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What does Adhedonia motivate?
drug us because drugs can quickly correct or improve mood
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What is the definition of a drug addict?
Persisitent drug use despite having knowledge of interpersonal, socioeconomic or medical harm
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What were rats tained to do?
Selt administer cocaine before a 30 day time out period, rats then presented with a cue previously paired with cocaine, to reinstate responding, rat model of tendency to relapse.
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What were the two groups?
Addicted and casual depending upon whether rats showed a high or low reinstatement effect
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What was the punishment test?
groups could again self administer cocaine but pressing but pressing the lever for cocaine also resulted in foot shock
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What did addicted show?
smaller reduction in punishment cocaine seeking behaviour than casual group
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What do these data suggest?
Vulunerability to drug addiction is associated with reduced senstivity to the negative consequences of drug taking
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What do addicts have?
full knowledge of the adverse consequences of their drug taking but just not be able to use this knowledge to correct their behaviour
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What event related potential was used?
To measure the responses of cocaine addicts to errors in their performance?
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What did events produce?
Characteristic wave forms of electrical activity in the brain measured through scalp electrodes
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What did Franken et al ask?
do cocaine addicts have an abnormality in their brain ERP to inccoreect behavioural responses
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What did Trials consist of?
Letter strings on the screen for 52 Msec
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What did participants have to do?
Press on the right if the central letter was H and on the left in the central letter was s in under 700 msec, this procedure results in many errors and feedback was given
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What did cocaine addicts show?
Reducted frontal negativity in response to errors and less post error improvement in performance
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What does this suggest?
Addicts may have less knowledge of the adverse consequences of their behaviour and so less ability to use this knowledge to modify their behaviour
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Card 2

Front

What is the prospective design ?

Back

12 year old high risk children of drug dependent parents, measures of personality, temperament and cognitive capabilities

Card 3

Front

What children were compared?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When were they assessed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what was greater in the high than low risk groups?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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