Rise of Cromwell

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1514 what was Cromwell to Wolsey?
His legal adviser
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He was loyal to Wolsey, even through his fall. When did he gain a place on the King's Council?
1531
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What was Cromwell's first major office in 1532?
Mastership of the king's jewels
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Who did Cromwell temporarily replace in 1533?
Stephen Gardiner, in his position as Henry’s principal secretary. Made permanent in 1534.
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How did Cromwell entice the king?
Convinced Henry he had a solution to the “great matter”. Wolsey’s failure allowed Cromwell to manipulate the king and push him in a direction that he hadn't considered.
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What did the English Reformation mean for England?
Made Henry VIII the most powerful monarch in English history. Enabled him to rule an undivided kingdom where Church and State merged into a single sovereign state. This “constitutional” revolution changed the government.
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What was the main beneficiary of the Reformation?
The Crown: could reduce the political power of the Church and exploit its vast wealth. Ecclesiastical riches replenished the Exchequer, had been almost bankrupt by Henry VIII’s unsuccessful wars.
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What was the negatives of the Reformation?
Religion was forefront, created problems for the monarchy. EG: religious differences deepened the rift between factions at court: Henry VIII had to be careful between the conservative Catholic and progressive or reforming Protestant
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After Cromwell recognised that neither the Pope, or William Warham (the Archbishop of Canterbury) would grant the annulment, he decided to take another route which was...
To go through Parliament
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How did he use Parliament?
To pass laws restricting papal powers by recognising that these powers in fact resided in the Crown of England
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Why was this a unique approach?
Generally accepted that Parliament was a rarely and briefly used component of political life (first 20 years of Henry’s reign: of no significance) main function- grant extraordinary taxes and to pass new laws.
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What was the first vital parliamentary legislation?
The Act in Restraint of Annates in 1532 - forbade the payment to the Vatican of up to 95% of annates. Hoped this financial penalty would encourage the Pope to reconsider his position- could lose annates entirely
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What was the second piece of vital parliamentary legislation?
The Act in Restraint of Appeals in 1533
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What was the Act in Restraint of Appeals?
Declared that final authority in all legal matters, resided in the monarch and therefore illegal to appeal to any authority outside the kingdom on any such matters
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Why was the Act in Restraint of Appeals significant?
Ensured that the final verdict on the validity of Henry and Catherine’s marriage would be taken out of Rome’s hands. Secondly, the right of the Pope to make decisions affecting Henry and his subjects was publicly denied.
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Why was there urgency to secure this legislation?
Because Anne Boleyn was pregnant, royal assent given.
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Why were the Church "beaten" into submission by Cromwell?
Parliament could only so do much without the consent of senior clerics, so Cromwell set about ensuring a clerical acceptance of the “reforms” proposed. Growing anticlericalism was exaggerated by Cromwell and used as a reason to justify reform.
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What happened to people who resisted?
Cromwell charged the entire clerical class with praemunire: legal provision that forbade clerics to take any action that cut across the powers of the Crown- especially recognising any external authority without monarch’s explicit permission.
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Convocation met in January 1531, the majority of its members were eager to compromise. Informed king would withdraw the indictment of pramunire in return for...
A grant of £118,000 and awarding him the title of “sole Protector and supreme Head of the English Church and clergy”
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What was the Pardon of the Clergy?
Bishop John Fisher's negotiating to pay the sum of £118,000 over 5 years. Greatest achievement: amending the title Henry had claimed for himself, their “supreme head”, on condition that a qualifyi
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What did the concession of the King's title mean?
Possible for each cleric to interpret from himself what the king’s new title meant in practice
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When was agreement between the Crown and the Church enshrined?
Act of Parliament passed in January 1531. The Pardon of the Clergy absolved the church of any wrongdoing and the indictment was withdrawn.
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What was the Supplication against the Ordinates?
Claimed the Church was riddled with corruption. Secondly, challenged the Church’s rights to have its own courts and laws independent of the Crown and State
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How did the Supplication against the Ordinates come around?
Petitioners urged the king to root out corruption and end legal/ legislative independence of the Church by bringing it firmly under the control of the State. Some historians think Cromwell initiated it to prove to the king he had support.
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The Convocation rejected the claims together, how did they counter the argument?
Asserting the Church’s ancient right to enact and enforce canon law
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The Convocation had angered the King, he aligned with the Commons. The legislative independence of the Church was under threat, what did they do?
urged their fellow clerics to resist the king’s demands. Archbishop of Canterbury was weak and indecisive, failed to provide the leadership to resist.
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When did the Convocation reluctantly agree? Who resigned?
May 1532. Sir Thomas More resigned.
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What were the terms of the Submission of the Clergy?
Surrendered its right to make ecclesiastical laws independently of the king. Secondly, promised not to issue new laws currently being drafted without royal license. Agreed to submit existing laws to a royally appointed committee for revision
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When did William Warham die?
1532
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Who took his place as the Archbishop of Canterbury?
Thomas Cranmer
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Why was Cranmer advantageous for Henry VIII?
No personal ambition and strongly in favour of the annulment. Wrote a book supporting Henry’s case in 1529, agent buying support in European universities in 1530 or serving as England’s ambassador at the court of Charles V
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Was Cromwell Reformist or Conservative?
Reformist
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What did the Act of Supremacy assert?
that the King of England had a God-given right of cure of souls of his subjects, was head of the national Church and owed no obedience to the “Bishop of Rome”.
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What did the Act of Supremacy re-emphasise?
Re-established the king’s territories as a sovereign empire, within which no other ruler could exercise any control
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Card 2

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He was loyal to Wolsey, even through his fall. When did he gain a place on the King's Council?

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1531

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Card 4

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Who did Cromwell temporarily replace in 1533?

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Card 5

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