RiR 3: 1917 (Feb to October)

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Difficulties facing the...
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PG membership consisted mainly of...
...Liberals (Octobrists + Kadets)
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These parties did not have...
...popular support throughout Russia.
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Who was not included in the PG
Both sides of the SD's
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What did these groups form and where?
...a rival powerbase in the Petrograd govt.
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What was this system known and as what was its effect?
Dual Govt = harder to enforce decisive / effective Govt.
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When did the which Soviet become which other Soviet?
Petrograd Soviet became the All-Russia Soviet inJune 1917
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Importantly, what did the claim?
The right to issue laws
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Order No.1 stated...
...All military orders of the PG required the agreement of the Soviet before being followed.
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Who dominated the soviet and 2 examples
Left wing groups. Bolsheviks and SR's
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The soviet's relationship with the PG
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In theory, major decisions required...
...agreement of PG and Soviet
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This deprived Russia of what at a time they so desperately needed it?
Decisive / Effective Govt in 1917.
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Impact of War [From - To]
March - October 1917
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Britain and France's offer to Russia
Continue to loan money if they stay in the war.
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Some members of the PG believed
It was Russia's duty to stay in the war.
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Who argued for this and why?
Russian Foreign Minister MILYUKOV. Said Russia's future lay with these democratic nations.
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Path of military morale, March onwards
Improved after abdication. Poor supplies and economic problems reversed this process.
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What did the Soviet declare in which month [war]
In March, the Soviet declared they would only support a defensive war.
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How was this in opposition to the PG's aims?
The PG hoped to regain lost territory and expand Russia's borders after victory.
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When did demonstrations become more frequent and where notably?
April 1917, Petrograd
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When did demonstrations become more frequent and where notably?
April 1917, Petrograd
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What did the PG support and why?
The June offensive to win support domestically and internationally.
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What was the June offensive?
Big offensive against A-H
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(Return to later) Important long term consequence of the June Offensive
Support for Bolsheviks grew as they did not collaborate w/ PG before June Offensive
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Result and consequences for the army [2]
Failed. 1) Mass desertions. 2) Morale collapsed.
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Domestic consequences and date
Riots and protests vs war increased in JULY.
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Important political development at this time?
Kerensky became prime minister in July 1917.
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Notable about Kerensky
He was an SR with connections in both parts of Dual Govt.
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Ultimately, Kerensky...
...failed to resolve the problems facing Russia
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Developments in X Russia
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While the PG exerted control in X...
Major cities (Moscow) their influence in the countryside was limited.
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Peasants at this time were...
...seizing land from landowners
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Why were the peasants able to do this?
The PG did not have a capability to prevent it.
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As a general theme, what was increasing in the countryside [3]
Political, Social + Economic chaos.
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Unlike the Tsars Govt, the PG...
...could not rely on the army (at this point) to restore order
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APRIL 1917
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Lenin's Background
Lenin supported Marxism.
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Lenin's understanding of Russia's state in relation to his beliefs
Majority of Russian's were peasants. An industrial working class revolution was impossible
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Lenin's views on revolution
Believed a revolution was possible but only by the hands of a small group of dedicated revolutionaries.
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What did his views cause and when?
The SD's to split in 1903.
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Ultimately it was...
...Lenin's party that provided the elite leadership for any future revolution.
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Therefore without Lenin,
There would most likely not have been a communist revolution in OCT 1917
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3 APRIL 1917
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Where had Lenin been during abdication?
Exile in Zurich.
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Who supported his return and why?
German Govt. because he opposed war.
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Lenins immediate actions
Demanded an IMMEDIATE social revolution.
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This was put forth by
The April Theses
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The April Theses claimed... [2]
...1) promises of PLB. 2) All power to the Soviets
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These declarations were designed to...
...gain support for the Bolsheviks
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Lenin's comments of the PG in the April Theses [3]
1) emphasised failure to redistribute rural land 2) PG too influenced by middle classes and wealthy landowners 3) They should be replaced by the Soviets
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Lenin's Impact [Response to PLB]
Many Russians opposed war so PLB attracted their support
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How did Lenin actively try gain support for strikes? [date]
21st April, he sent Bolsheviks to factories .
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What were these strikes calling for?
Removal of the PG
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Impact of this attempt
No mass strikes = limited impact
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Why was this the case despite disdain existing for the PG? [which group's reaction in particular]
Many Russian Marxists believed Russia was not ready for a communist revolution in 1917.
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Lenin's Impact [The PG's concerns]
Lenin's leadership skills remained a threat to the PG
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[The Bolsheviks progress before "period?"] and evidence
Bolsheviks made little progress before the "July Days." This is evident as their active membership totalled 10,000
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When did support for the Bollys grow?
After the disastrous June Offensive
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The Bolsheviks had not co-operated with the PG before this offensive, unlike other parties in the PG and Soviet.
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Impact of June Offensive [3]
1) PG and Soviet saw Bollys as a threat. 2) Troops remained loyal to Govt + Bolshevik attempts failed. 3) Support grew for Bollys amongst workers and in cities
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The July Days and General Kornilov [DATE]
3rd - 6th July
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Brief summary: July Days
Demonstrations saw the PG headquarters surrounded. People came to to Soviet HQ looking for directions but this was unexploited. The dual Govt took this time to eliminate the threat of Lenin
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Brief summary: The Kornilov Affair
Kerensky and Kornilov became PM and CiC. Miscommunication between the two resulted in Kornilov's march on Petrograd to restore order being seen as an attempted coup. Kerensky gave weapons to Red Guards and freed Bollys.
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Brief conclusion: The Kornilov Affair
Kornilov arrested. PG and Kerensky weakened. Soviets and Bolsheviks strengthened. Power vacuum.
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[The July Days] Reasons for demonstrations across Russia [3]
1) June Offensive. 2) Food shortages. 3). Economic chaos
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Who organised an X demonstration?
Soldiers and sailors organised an armed demonstration
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Its aim?
Cause the collapse of the PG
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Where did their demo occur?
Marinsky Palace. HQ of PG.
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When was the height of protests and how many gathered where?
4th July, 50K people surrounded Tauride palace (Soviet HQ) looking for directions on how to proceed.
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Who did many look for and what was the response?
Many looked to the Bolsheviks for guidance but Lenin failed to exploit the situation.
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What did this demonstrate and who took heed? why?
The growing popularity of the Bolsheviks. The PG-PS took heed. They were seen as a threat to their own power.
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How did the PG-PS attempt deal with the Bollys? [2]
1) Urged workers to stop protesting. 2) Brought in loyal troops from outside Petrograd to restore order
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Climax of the July days. [Date and event]
July 6th: 1) Troops surrounded Bolshevik HQ. 500 surrendered. 2) Demonstrations collapsed 3) Lenin fleet to Finland.
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Why was Lenin forced to flee?
Accused of being a Germany spy.
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Situation as it appeared at this point [2]
1) Seemed Lenin had missed his chance. 2) Bolshevik threat appeared to be over.
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[Kornilov Affair] When did Kerensky become PM? [2] / Who did he replace?
After the June Offensive / In July. //Prince Lvov
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What policy did he reintroduce?
Death Penalty [think popularity]
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General Kornilov replaced who as what?
General Brusilov as Commander in Chief.
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What initiated the Kornilov affair and date?
24th August, Kornilov marched on Petrograd with reliable troops to RESTORE ORDER on behalf of PG.
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Kerensky's believed:
Kornilov was going to remove him from power.
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Kerensky's actions [2]
Release Bolsheviks from prison // Provide Red Guards w/ weapons.
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Upon realising he had been X by Kerensky, Kornilov...
Realising Kerensky had betrayed him, Kornilov continued to march on Petrograd.
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Material outcome of Kornilov affair:
Kornilov lost support of his troops and was arrested 1st September.
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[Consequences of the revolt] Kerensky and PG:
The PG was seriously weakened // Kerensky lost support of left and right wing parties.
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[Consequences of the revolt] Soviet [2]
1) Support for All-Russia Soviet increased. 2) Bolsheviks won majority support in Petrograd Soviet
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[Consequences of the revolt] Armed forces
Discipline deteriorated further
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[Consequences of the revolt] Political landscape
Power vacuum created.
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This political climate...
...provided Lenin and the Bolsheviks, now armed, an opportunity to seize power.
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Key Events Before...
...October 1917 Revolution
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What occurred before October 1917?
Many important steps which allowed and required the Bolsheviks to take over in October.
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Lenin's actions after the July Days while absent [2]
1) More emphasis on PLB. 2) Encouraged establishment of 41 Bolshevik newspapers.
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Significance [2]
1) Gained Bolly's workers and peasants support. 2) Bolshevik message spread across Russia.
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What had the Kornilov affair caused among workers?
A belief that the Russian military was planning a military dictatorship.
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What strengthened the Bolsheviks in this period? (non-politically) [2]
The establishment of the Red Guards w/ Kerensky's gifted weapons
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Important event in August:
PG announced elections for constituent assembly would be held in November.
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Lenin's reaction: [2]
1) Knew SR's would win. 2) Determined to seize power before November.
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Soviets by the end of X and Lenin's declarations about it?
By the end of September, the Bolsheviks dominated the Petrograd Soviet // Lenin continued to demand All Power to the Soviets.
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Lenin returned to Russia secretly on...
...10th October.
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What had he achieved within X days?
Persuaded the Central Committee to support an armed seizure of power.
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He achieved this despite...
...Z+K's opposition: They advocated a coalition.
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[Role of Trotsky] Who joined the party in...
May 1917.
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When was Trotsky elected X [date]
25th September, Trotsky was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.
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What other position did Trotsky hold in the SOVIET?
Leader of the Military Revolutionary Committee.
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Key Events in the Revolution [3]
The Military Revolutionary Committee. 2) Storming the Winter Palace. 3) The All-Russia Soviet.
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[The MRC] What and when triggered the start of the October Revolution?
24th October, the PG attempted to close down two Bolshevik newspapers in Petrograd.
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[MRC]After this event...
...Lenin authorised the go ahead of Trotsky's plan.
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[MRC] Pivotal to Trotsky's plan:
Using the MRC to take over Petrograd so he could claim he acted on behalf of the Soviet.
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Storming the Winter Palace [Date and event]
24th October. Important areas / building were occupied.
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Who occupied these areas?
Red Guards
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Why was the coup a breeze? [2]
1) Soldiers offered minimal resistance. 2) The Winter Palace was defended by females and trainee officer cadets
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Outcome of storming the palace [2]
Majority of PG leaders arrested. 2) Kerensky fled using USA embassy with promises to return to crush bollys.
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On X, the MRC announced...
25th October, The MRC announced the PG had been deposed.
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The All-Russia Soviet met on... [date and time]
... evening of 25th October.
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Composition of ARS [seats]
Bolsheviks = 390 / SR's = 180 / Mensheviks = 80
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This composition clearly supported...
...the removal of the PG by the Bolsheviks
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At this point, Lenin and the Bolsheviks had the task of...
...consolidating their power across all of Russia.
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...OCTOBER 1917.
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[The State of the PG] Extent of PG support in Petrograd?
Little support
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What problems had they failed to address? [3]
1) Food shortages. 2) Redistribution of land. 3) Working conditions.
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When + with who did Kerensky return to Petrograd
28th October, Cossack soldiers. Red Guards defeated them.
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Bolshevik success + unpopularity of PG =
Did not = Lenin had widespread support across the entirety of Russia.
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Bolshevik support in [2]
Petrograd + cities // Countryside.
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Why were the PG unpopular in the cities amongst who?
Unpopular against working class as they had failed to address problems of working conditions in factories.
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Correlation between X + Y
As economy declined, workers demands increased.
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What two linked issues fuelled further unrest amongst workers?
Rising prices + food shortages
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These issues caused X to occur, notably after ['period']
Rising prices and food shortages resulted in more frequent strikes, especially after 'July Days.'
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General contextual point relating to Bolshevik support
Workers becoming more radical = Bolshevik promises became more appealing.
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Worth noting that many workers at this time would support any party promising to... [2]
...Resolve their problems and improve the economy
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This is because neither...
...the PG or Soviets had succeeded in this respect.
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Significance of support in Petrograd
It was the centre of political power.
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Bolshevik membership in February 1917
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" " September 1917
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Despite increased X...
Despite increased popularity in major cities, the Bolsheviks did not command the popular support of the Russian population
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[Support in the countryside] Population split in 1917
Vast majority of Russians peasants.
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1917 saw...
...Increase in peasants using violence to seize land by force.
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Extent of PG support in countryside
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Who and why were X the most popular party in rural areas?
SR's: Their policies focused on the demands of the peasants, particularly the redistribution of land.
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Bolshevik support was concentrated...
In the cities amongst the INDUSTRIAL WORKING CLASS.
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Why did this place them at a disadvantage?
The peasants outnumbered the working class. = More votes for SR's in November.
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Some peasants mindset by X 1917.
By October 1917, more peasants were becoming disillusioned with the SR's and Mensheviks.
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Because they were more closely linked with the PG than Bollys.
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[Support in the Army] Relations between army and PG. [Development after X]
Deteriorated further after Kornilov Affair.
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Behaviour of soldiers by October 1917 [2]
Soldiers refusing orders // Became more radical in their demands
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Russian army was X and the PG's X was X
Army collapsing and the PG's POWER was evaporating.
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At this point, the majority of soldiers...
...did NOT turn to supporting the Bolsheviks immediately
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...when they Bollys seized power in Oct. 1917, they presented themselves as an effective alternative to the PG.
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In this context...
...they gained the support of army.
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1) Role of Lenin. 2) Weaknesses of other parties. 3) The fall of the PG. 4) Lenin's use of the Soviets.
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State of Bolsheviks in February 1917
Unlikely to take power
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Exemplified by...
...leading Bolsheviks (Z+K) supporting the PG.
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How did Lenin play a role? [2]
Took him 8 days to convince the CC despite opposition. // Allowed Trotsky to organise the takeover.
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Why was appointing Trotsky viewed as X
It was viewed as an astute move. Despite only joining in May, he had influence in the P.Soviet and his organisation was key to the effective takeover.
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The Kadets [2]
Dominated the PG / Failed to attract support of peasants and workers
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How did the peasants and workers view the Kadets?
Serving the interests of the propertied classes.
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Despite widespread support, why were the Bolsheviks better positioned than the Mensheviks + SR's
They lacked leadership and failed to develop a clear strategy to gain power.
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What further put these 2 parties at a disadvantage?
After July Days, these two appeared closely linked to the PG.
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The Bolsheviks disconnection with the PG =
more support amongst WORKERS AND SOLDIERS.
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Crucial mistake made by Mensheviks + outcome
They did not support the creation of a Soviet Govt. after the July Days. // Support plummeted and was picked up by Bolsheviks
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[Fall of the PG] Kornilov Affair gave Bolsheviks [3]
The momentum, opportunity and MEANS to seize power
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The affair's impact on PG + Bolsheviks
Made PG appear weak and Bolsheviks appeared politically stronger.
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What problems had the PG failed to address since when?
Since coming to power in Feb 1917. They had failed to address: 1) Food shortages. 2) Inflation. 3) War. 4) Redistribution of land.
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What was the turning point for the PG?
The June Offensive
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What did the June Offensive do to the PG?
Convinced many Russians they were untrustworthy.
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In October 1917 the Soviets were...
...the only real alternative power base.
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How did Lenin exploit this?
Through the MRC, he MANIPULATED EVENTS, to provide impression that the soviets were taking over power.
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In reality...
...he had taken the first steps towards a communist dictatorship.
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The other political parties...
...failed to prevent this from occurring in Oct.1917.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


PG membership consisted mainly of...


...Liberals (Octobrists + Kadets)

Card 3


These parties did not have...


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Who was not included in the PG


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did these groups form and where?


Preview of the front of card 5
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