RiR 2: Tsarism's Last Chance, 1906 - 1917

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The Role and Impact of the Dumas [date]
1906 - 1914.
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Who was significant in restoring stability to Russia?
New MoI: Durnovo
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How did liberals react in 1906 and why?
Co-operated with the regime. Did not want Russia to slide into anarchy.
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April 1906: Witte
Secured a desperately needed loan from France of 850M roubles. He was then replaced by Stolypin
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Stolypin was notorious for...which he used to
...his use of the death penalty, to restore order to the countryside.
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Fundamental Laws =
New constitution of Russia.
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Most significant development of FL's
Created a national parliament, with a lower elected house - Duma
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Upper House AKA 'x' consisted of
Council of State, elected members + appointed members
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Drawback of Fundamental Laws
Article 87 - Rule by decree / ignore + veto parliament.
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What did Nicholas II say about October Manifesto
"sick with shame...at the betrayal of the dynasty"
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The new parliament and its powers were...
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Thus they did not...
....fufill the demands of the Tsar's political opponents
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Who demonstrated their discontent at the lack of reform
The SR's who boycotted the First Duma election
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Suffrage in 1906
All men over 25 except soldiers, ex revolutionaries and students
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Example of voting inequality
Some landowners votes were worth 50 peasants
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Elections in March, Duma formed in April formed by
Centre Left Kadets who led, and working parties openly espousing socialist principles
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What did many of its members call for?
Land Reforms
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This Duma was aware that
They had no chance of passing meaningful reform.
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Thus they became...
...more strident in their anti-Tsarist rhetoric
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They voted and passed laws which...
...had no chance of being accepted by the govt.
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Such as...
...the release of political prisoners.
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The Duma was resolve after
73 days
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Aftermath: Kadets signed the...
Vyborg Appeal
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This called for...
...passive resistance (stop paying tax, don't join army)
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Consequences for the Kadets: [2]
Leaders arrested / banned from second duma
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Second Duma elected in
Feb 1907
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The Tsar and Stolypin's hopes for second election
Without Kadets, elections would provide a more MALLEABLE parliament
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Instead votes went to...
...more radical parties including SR's and Mensheviks
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This Duma passed... supported by
...important land reforms supported by Stolypin
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But still contained...
...people demanding further political reforms.
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What did Stolypin offer this Duma
Improved civil and workers rights
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How did the Duma respond
Counter-demands against Stolypins heavy-handed law and order tactics
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Dissolved in
June 1907
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Tsar's justification
Police claimed members of Duma were encouraging mutinies.
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When were new elections held?
November 1907
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How did Stolypin ensure the co-operation of the next Duma?
Radically changed the franchise.
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Who could vote?
Wealthiest 30% of men
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This resulted in
A duma that did not demand political reform + supported Tsar.
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Wealthy generally not in favour of radical reform as status quo suited them.
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This duma passed...
...further land reforms
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Known as
Duma of Lords and Lackeys. Puppeteer parliament
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This parliament, unlike the others,
served its full 5 year term
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Significant event in 1911
Stolypin assassinated
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New elections in
June 1912
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Fourth duma continued to
support Tsar
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Third and 4th lasted until 1914 and did not fully support reform
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[IMPACT OF DUMAS] Running of country
Land Captains replaced by more effective Justices of Peace
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Plan introduced to establish universal primary education
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Health and accident insurance programmes developed for workers
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Some improvements to armed forces implemented
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Establishment + continuance of Dumas moved Russia closer towards becoming a full democracy despite Tsars dominance in this period
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What they singularly failed to do, however, was...
...to establish the seed of democracy in Russia, and to provide a representative vent for the rising tensions within the rapidly industrializing country. And in the end, those tensions found their way out
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1906 - 1911
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Stolypins's official role
Prime minister
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1911, assassinated
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He opposed, such as
Revolutionary groups, such as Bollys
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Agrarian reforms
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Because... [2]
He knew it would help Russia modernise / Making peasants small landowners would draw them away from anti-tsarist groups [SR's]
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What had he achieved by end of 1907
Ensured the Duma was dominated by Tsar's supporters
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Land Reform [1st date]
November 1906
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This law allowed
Peasants to break from communes without Mir support.
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Also in Nov 1906
Peasant Land Bank encourage to give more loans
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1910, [Law]
All Mirs dissolved where no land redistribution had occurred since the emancipation
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Failing of the Mirs:
Continued to use primitive and inefficient farming tekkers
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Stolypin: Siberia
Provided incentives / loans for peasants to move to unexploited land in Siberia
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Stolypin hoped by creating efficient landowners...
...less farmers needed = urbanisation
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IMPACT OF STOLYPINS REFORMS: Peasant landowners in 1905 - 1915
20% to half
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Agricultural production: 1906 - 1913
45.9M tonnes to 61.7M tonnes
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What thwarted some of Stolypin's reforms
Outbreak of WW1. prevented further improvements to his continued initiative.
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Stolypin's impact: Workers
Little done to improve living conditions
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Evidence of industrial unrest:
Lena Goldfield Massacre 1912.
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What happened?
Police killed strikers
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What happened in June 1914
General Strike, albeit stopped after war was declared
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This revealed
His polices had not resolved economic and social tensions after his assassination
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Success or failure?
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Success: 1906-07
15% peasants accepted new opportunities offered by his reforms
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Success 1906-1914: Mirs
25% of peasants left the Mirs
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Success: peasants owning land
Some peasants became more loyal to Tsar
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Success: Dumas
Third and 4th Duma did not threaten Tsar.
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Success: Lenin
Lenin saw his reforms as a threat to gaining support of peasants for future revolutions
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Failures: Peasants
Majority of peasants who accepted incentives were based in more prosperous areas
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Example [2]
Southern Russia / the Ukraine
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Failure: Dumas
Stolypin weakened the Dumas
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Failure: Cities
His land reforms had limited impact in the cities
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Russian Army pre war
1906 -1914
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Military Reforms
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They focused on
improving organisation / ensuring appropriate equipment.
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Two changes:
Regimental structure changed + artillery standardised
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What promoted Russia to adopt the Gran Plan
Increased tensions in the Balkans
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This plan created by... supported...
Minister of War, supported an offensive strategy, wished by France.
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Russian armed forces +
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In a long war, the Russian economy...
...struggled to maintain supplies to armed forces and domestic population
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There was widespread discontent in Russia by...
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Russian armed forces failed to...
secure a quick victory against Germany.
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Initially... [2]
...Russia armed forces made advances / Maes jority population supported war.
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Where did forces suffer defeats? [2]
Tannenburg / Masurian Lakes
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2 Generals and their significance
Samsonov + Rennenkampf - poor planning and co-ordination caused defeats
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Casualties at these battles
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What did WW1 reveal?
The importance of new technology / tactics which Russia lacked
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When did Turkey enter the war?
November 1914.
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Severed a key supply line for Russia into the Mediterranean.
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DEVELOPMENTS impacting on...
...Effectiveness of Russian armed forces
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Name of the Command Centre of the Russian army
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Performance of Stavka?
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Big problem Stavka faced?
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Exemplified by
Some artillery units limited to 3 units a day
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X 1915 Russian Army retreated from X
August 1915, army retreated from Russian Poland
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Action taken by Tsar in X 1915
August, dismissed Grand Duke Nikolai and made himself commander.
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Why was this risky? [2]
He had limited military exp. / could now be held responsible for further defeats
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Retreat resulted in [2] casualties + territory
1.5M casualties / loss of important cities (Vilna) NOT Vienna
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Russian army 1916:
1.7M men = largest standing army
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Developments by Alexeyev 1916 [2]
Improved the production of artillery shells / Launched unsuccessful attack in March around Lake Naroch
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How many casualties were suffered at this battle?
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Which general launched a successful attack in 1916 against which army
General-Brusilov vs A-H forces
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Fallout of this battle
Russia could not exploit the victory due to their lack of resources
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December 1916: Russian deaths / casualties
1.6M dead / 3.9 wounded
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General State of the Russian army
Generals were poor leaders and desertions increased.
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Key development in 1917
Feb 1917, Russia in revolution + Tsar abdicated.
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What was formed in 1915? consisting of
Progressive Bloc, different groups IE Kadets
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Convince Tsar to establish a Ministry of Public Confidence to aid war
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Tsar's reaction: (thought and action)
Saw it as a threat to autocracy = closed Duma
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Declaring himself as Commander in Chief resulted in...
...Tsarina having greater influence in Petrograd
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Tsarinas actions:
Fired competent Minister of War and hired an incompetent Minister of Internal Affairs
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The Tsarina mistrusted
The Zemgor and The War Industries Committee.
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She was influenced by...
...Rasputin, who healed her son
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This caused trouble because...
...Rasputin caused national scandals.
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Rasputin was killed in
December 1916.
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What began to occur in major cities
Strikes and protests
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Tsar's response:
ordered them to be ended by force
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Who was the leader of the Duma at the time?
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His actions:
Sent telegrams to Tsar to return home. Ignored
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Upon the Tsar's eventual reutnr
he was stopped by railway strikers
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Why was the Tsar hopeless? [2]
The country was in chaos and he had lost the support of duma and armed forces
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He abdicated
March 2nd 1917
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When did the economy start to feel stretched?
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In the sense that...
...it was struggling to meet the needs of army / population.
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Inflation reached X by X
200% by 1917
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What contributed to the countries national debt increasing by X
Prohibition of alcohol = reduced revenues = national debt X 4.
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What caused increased urbanisation
War economy as more workers needed in cities
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Petrograd population 1914-17
2.1 - 2.7M
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What caused labour unrest? [2]
Inflation + declining living standards
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When did strikes begin to appear again?
End of 1916 into 1917.
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What caused a crisis in agriculture and when?
1916, peasants unable to secure a stable price for grain
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This resulted in..
peasants hoarding grain for own use.
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How much of total harvested grain was sold in which year?
10% in 1917.
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Diverted for war effort = less trains transporting food to cities
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1914 Wagons of grain received in Moscow / month
2200 wagons
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December 1916. " "
300 wagons
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This resulted in
Severe grain shortages in cities
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January 1917, Petrograd received
48% of its grain requirement
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Army forced to
halve 4000 calorie rations.
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February 1917 Revolution:
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Background Causes [2]
Tsar failed to deal with various socio-economic problems / these problems made worse by WW1.
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2 prevalent social economic problems:
Food shortages / living standards
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Background Causes [2]
Army suffered massive defeats / Tsar's decisions. (Leaving Tsarina in charge)
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Despite these problems...
...There were few indications in Jan 1917 that revolution was imminent.
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Notably, radical parties...
....had made not attempt to seize power.
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Other events between X and X contributed to X
Jan - March 1917, the abdication
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Date of first significant strike in Jan, in aid of?
9th Jan, to commemorate Bloody Sunday.
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How many participated?
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What caused more strikes to follow? [2]
Food shortages / working conditions
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What exacerbated the situation + when?
Feb 19th. Govt announced rationing of bread.
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Immediate response [2]
Panic buying + more food shortages
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What day did two separate groups take to the streets?
Feb 23rd
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Which groups were they?
Women commemorating International Women's Day and strikers from Putilov Engineering Works
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How many days later were X people protesting in X (TT-PP)
2 days later 200,000 protesting on streets of Petrograd
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How were demands put forward?
Workers established Soviets. issued Order No.1
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Who issued order No.1? When was this organisation established?
Petrograd Soviet: 1st March
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Response: Govt. [3]
Govt tried to regain control of the city / arrested leaders / closed public transport + newspapers
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Response: Army [2]
25th Feb. Cossacks and elite troops refused to fire / 26th Feb Petrograd garrison troops mutinied and joined protesters
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Significance + revealed
Tsar had lost support of army who he relied upon to maintain power
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The Duma [Date and actions]
26th Feb: The Tsar ordered the suspension of the Duma. They ignored and established a 12 man committee to oversee ruling of Russia
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Significance + revealed
Committee further undermined Tsar's authority, revealing he was losing political influence in Petty
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After the Tsar's abdication, March saw
The revolution spread. Local committees and soviets took over local Govt.
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Political Situation In Feb 1917: Duma's understanding of their position
Told important Generals they controlled events in petrograd / convinced them against military intervention
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Evidence that duma did not fully control Petrograd
Establishment of Petty Soviet March 1st
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Who was involved in encouraging Tsar to resign [2]
Rodzianko (duma, sent a general) + Alexeyev (said it would help war effort)
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Immediate consequences of abdication [General]
Short-term political chaos + violence increased
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Consequences [peasants]
Began to seize land by force
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Consequences [Govt] / [Political climate]
Duma Committee became PG but did not have support to govern effectively. / They rivalled the Petty Soviet
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Consequences [war]
Russia still involved in a war against Germany.
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Who was significant in restoring stability to Russia?


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How did liberals react in 1906 and why?


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April 1906: Witte


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