RiR 1: The Challenges to the Tsarist state (1881-1906)

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THE EXTENT OF CHANGE IN RUSSIA [DATE]
1881 - 1894
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4 areas covering extent of change 1881 - 1894
Alex III + policies / Failed assassination + fallout / Empire / Economic modernisation
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alex II [summary]
emancipation of serfs 1861 and other reforms. Killed 1881
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Succeeded by..
...Alex III
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Immediately he...
...halted many of his reforms
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Mentored by...
... Conservative Pobedonostsev (AON)
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Position held by Alex III
Chief procurator of the Holy Synod
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His reaction to Alex II assassination. What he thought and did
Said his reforms encouraged RADICALISM = threat to tsarist system. Launched a campaign of repression
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Alex III political reaction [2]
Reforming ministers (Melikov) forced to resign / issued manifesto emphasising absolute power
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Alex II legal response [2]
Arrested thousands / SoSS law passed = govt controlled courts w/o juries.
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Alex II social / civil response [3]
Press freedoms restricted / Foreign books + news censored / Uni fees increased
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# newspapers banned 1882 - 89
14 major papes
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Failed assassination of Alex III [date]
1887
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General response to assass attempt
Repression increased
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1889
Land Captains introduced to help rule Russia / extend Tsars power across empire
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Appointed by
MoI
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1890
Land Captains became members of the Zemstva
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Who could vote people onto the Zemstva
Landed class
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Why is this significant?
The landed class tended to share the interests of the Tsar.
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Two areas where Govt. had important control over
Education + judiciary
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C.Govt role in education
Made it nearly impossible for lower class children to go beyond priamry
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Govt role in judiciary
1890 > could choose juries.
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How and when specifically was power extended over the empire? [2]
1885, Russian became the official language, others were banned / Jews experienced pogroms
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What was this process of extending power called?
Russification.
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Alex III motive for modernising Russian economy
Compete with international rivals
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Who was appointed Finance minister in which year?
Nikolai Bunge (1881)
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Two motions by him?
Reduced peasant tax / created peasant land bank
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Aim of these goals:
Increase size of farms + production
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Second Finance minister in which year?
Vyshnegradsky, 1887
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Two of his measures
Encouraged peasants to move to Siberia (cheaper land) / sought loans from other nations to aid modernisation.
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Despite these measures...
...Famine struck 1891.
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How many killed?
1.5-2M
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Impact of Witte's policies [date]
1892 - 1903
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3 subsections
Russian economy + society / Witte's policies + Great Spurt / Successes + Failures
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The emancipation of the serfs did not...
...resolve Russia's agricultural production problems by end 19thC.
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This was exemplified by..
...famine of 1891-92
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Example of developments to improve economy [date] think before witte
Tariffs on foreign goods, 1891
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This would encourage...
...domestic buying
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Despite this Russia still...
...miles behind Western european economy
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Witte appointed Finance minister in...
...1892
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Key goals [2]
Strengthen Russian economy / maintain Great Power status
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Witte identified following problems in late 19thC? [3]
Foreign investment needed / larger business class needed / Russia needed to URBANISE
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[Wittes polices] Govt.
became more active in developing economy
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[Wittes polices] Industry
Emphasis placed on producing raw materials
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[Wittes polices] Finances [2]
Loans obtained from foreign nations / increased taxes on peasants
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[Wittes polices] Transport
Trans-siberian railway built to export Siberia
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[Wittes polices] workers
1897 - Restricted working hours to 11.5 a day.
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Successes [areas]
Industry / annual growth / Investment / transport / cities / siberia / army
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[Success] Industry [2]
Coal + iron ^ / Industrial growth 8% / year {1890s}
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[Success] 1897 -1900: foreign investment
144 million roubles
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[Success] Railway building
Railway building expanded throughout Russia. T-S Railway almost done by 1903.
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[Success] Cities
Large factories emerged / Cities grew rapidly
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Population of St Petersburg: 1890 - 1914
1M - 2M
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[Success] Siberia
Resources increasingly exported
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[Success] Army
Army equipped with sophisticated weaponry = compete as Great Power
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Failures [Social / city] (2)
Poor living conditions / strikes common
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Failures [politics] [2]
Russian political system didn't modernise / more political opposition emerged.
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Failures [GDP]
1913: industry only 20% of national income
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Failures [Urbanisation]
1913: only 18% population lived in towns
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Failures [Finances]
Massive debt: 8B roubles / high taxes angered peasants
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Failures [General]
Russia modernising from a position behind economies of others / Reforms still couldn't take Russia infront of Germany.
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NICHOLAS II
Regime + Effectiveness
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Nicholas II coronated in...
...1894
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Personality [2]
Limited understanding of the suffering of the population / indecisive = relied heavily on advisors
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Influenced by...
Pobedonostsev
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Who opposed..
...political reform.
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Nicholas was supported by...
...a Council of Ministers
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The Tsars Beliefs [Govt]
Maintaining the Tsarist system and keeping ABSOLUTE POWER.
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The Tsars Beliefs [Politics] (2)
Opposed political reform / Believed he had DIVNE RIGHT to rule
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The nature of Nicholas's rule can be summarised as...
...a dictatorship
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This is proven by his refusal to...
...allow parliament to be established...
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...From ... until
1894 - 1905
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Besides his advisors, what else did the Tsar rely on and for what?
The Okhrana, to maintain security.
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Conservative position exemplified through...
...censorship of newspapers and books
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Prevalent during his reign was... [2 - linked]
Strikes and protests
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Reaction to these...
...used army and Cossacks to suppress them.
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Seen during [3]
Rostov 1902 / Odessa 1903
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Nicholas encouraged...
Pogroms
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Nicholas supported and helped establish
The Black Hundreds
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Traits of the Black hunnas [3]
Nationalistic, Anti-semitic, supported Tsarist system
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Methods [2]
Marches around working class districts / violence
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WEAKNESSES IN
THE POLITICAL SYSTEM
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Who and how many helped The Tsarist regime govern the empire?
thousands of civil servants
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This system was...
...inefficient
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Because... [3]
Slow implementation of decisions / Poor pay = corruption / Tsar = indecisive = impressionable
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Overriding impact of The Tsar's rule (Remember: last Tsar, all started going **** up here)
Refusal to grant reform + solve living standards led to civil unrest = rise in support for political opposition group
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Nicholas II and Tsarina: Their relationship?
Close
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Important because..
He was easily influenced
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This was a problem in times such as... [2]
...Nicholas missing public events / meetings with advisors
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Why was she unpopular and when did this further suffer?
She was German, beginning of WW1
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Nicholas and the Church: Name of Russian church?
Russian Orthodox Church
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Role of Orthodox Church in Russian society
Very important.
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Relationship between Tsar and church + demonstrated how?
Linked closely, church supported Tsarist system and promoted message of divine right in the countryside
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When did these long held beliefs come into question?
Early 20th C. people started to question divine right.
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POLITICAL OPPOSITION TO THE TSARIST SYSTEM OF RULE [3]
Reasons for opposition / Impact of Marxism / Political groups
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Opposition towards the Tsar's autocratic rule [general]
Long history in the 19th C.
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Significant display of discontent with the system
The People's Will assassination of Alex II in 1881.
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Towards the end of the 19th C. what were more Russian calling for?
A COMPLETE change in the way Russia was ruled.
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3 generic groups calling for reform
Growing middle class / Peasants + workers / Marxists
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Middle class wanted [2]
Constitutional Govt / Political freedom
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Peasants and workers wanted [2]
Higher living standards / end to EXTREME POVERTY
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MARXISM [Brief overview]
Capitalism = exploitation of workers. Workers would rise up vs ruling classes and remove it. Communist society would emerge W/o class struggleq
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Why did Marxism gain popularity in the 1890s?
Accelerated industrialisation of Russia in this time.
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Three main opposition groups
The SD's / The SR's / The Liberals
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SD's [appealed to]
Workers
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SR's [appealed to]
peasants
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Liberals [appealed to]
educated middle class.
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CAUSES OF 1905 REVOLUTION [3]
BACKGROUND FACTORS / 1904: GOVT. CONCESSIONS / TRIGGER CAUSES
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Background causes: Chain of events [cities]
Industrialisation = urbanisation - economic slowdown = less jobs + slums = workers became more rebellious.
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Population of Russia...
...expanded rapidly
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Population 1885:
98 million
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Population 1905:
125M
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When did the economic slowdown occur?
early 20thC.
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Large slums appeared in...
...St.Petersburg
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When did workers start to become more rebellious?
1901.
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Background causes [agriculture]
Poor Govt. + farming tekkers = crisis.
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Famine struck again in
1901.
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The Govt was experiencing more challenges from...
...terrorists
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Shown by...[date]
The SR's assassination of Grand Duke Sergei [1905]
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1904...
...Government concessions
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In 1904 it appeared...
...that the Govt was more prepared to listen to the demands of the Liberals.
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April 1904:
Conservative Moi replaced by more liberal Moi
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This more liberal Moi was called
Svyatopolk-Mirsky
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He granted...
...more press freedoms
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How did these actions help cause the revolution?
Raised the expectations of the liberals
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The appointment of Svyatopolk-Mirsky encouraged which group to be established by who?
Union of Liberation by Pyore Struve, a liberal politician.
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Aim of this group and outcome?
Sought more political freedoms / Tsar largely ignored demands.
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Key Trigger Cause 1:
Russo-Japanese War 1905.
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General summary [3]
Humiliating defeats of army and navy ignited rebellions and protests across Russia. Humiliating peace treaty signed by Tsar. The war = fewer troops to control protests in cities
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Key Trigger Cause 2
Bloody Sunday: January 1905
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How did it start?
Workers in St.P protested and petitioned for an 8 hour day / elected assembly
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How did it develop?
Father Gapon led to masses to the Winter Palace, petition in hand.
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Number of marchers
150,000
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Climax of that day
Soldiers opened fire killing 200 - 5000 according to different sources
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How did it aid the revolution? [2]
Helped to UNITE different groups + protests became more frequent
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Aftermath [February 1905] [2]
400,000 workers on strike / SOME mutinies (Potemkin)
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Ultimately led to..
...Govt making concessions to avoid revolution, despite attempts to quell protests
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1905 REVOLUTION
KEY EVENTS / ST.P SOVIET / CONSEQUENCES / OPPOSITION WEAKNESSES
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Russo-Jaa War + Bloody Sunday massacre sparked...
...WIDESPREAD strikes and protests.
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How many worker had been on strike by the end of 1905?
2.7M
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Important event September - October 1905
GENERAL STRIKE
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Where did peasants uprising occur?
Kursk
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July 1905: What and where?
First meeting of the All-Russian peasants Union - Moscow
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They called for
More political freedom and transfer of land from the nobility
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May 1905: what was established and by who?
Union of Unions - Miliukov
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What did the UoU involve and what was their aim?
Unite leaders of Zemstva and professional groups in demanding a new constitution
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St.P Soviet: Summary
An assembly of workers, representing 96 factories.
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Who participated?
Both the SD's
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Soviet significant because...
...showed the workers could organise themselves into an opposition group
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Soviet closed down in...
...December 1905
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CONSEQUENCES: October 1905: Who and what?
Witte persuaded Govt. to issue the October Manifesto
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Which promised...
...various political reforms
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Most significant reform...
...establishment of a Duma.
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Other minor reforms [3]
Acknowledged freedom of: speech, assembly and press.
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Liberals reaction to proposals
Split. Kadets saw it as the beginning of political reform
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SR / SD response
Called it limited and said it didn't meeting their own aims
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Fallout of October manifesto [general]
Tsar able to reassert authoritai.
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Key to Tsar's survival
Army's continuing loyalty.
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Tsar established...
Union of russian People
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They were linked to...
...the black hundreds. played the same role
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WEAKNESSES WITHIN
OPPOSITION
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Groups being divided and organised resulted in...
...them being easily persecuted and destroyed by the Black hunnas
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[Weaknesses] Leadership
Opposition leaders (IE St.P soviet leaders) arrested in 1905, depriving groups of leadership
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[Weaknesses] Beliefs
SR's + SD's all had different political aims and beliefs
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[Weaknesses] Oct Manifesto
Manifesto successful in furthering these divisions
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By 1906...
The Tsar had secured his regime.
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alex II [summary]

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