Rings, acids and amines

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Define arene
aromatic hydrocarbons containing one or more benzene rings
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Define aromatic
the cyclic structure of a hydrocarbon, the presence of a benze ring
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Define electrophile
an atom or group of atoms that is attracted to an electron-rich centre where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond (electron grabbers)
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Define redox reaction
one in which both reduction and oxidation take place
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Define reflux
the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
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Define esterification
the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
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What is an amine?
derivatives of ammonia- a primary amine is one in which the nitrogen atom is attached to one carbon chain
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What are the conditions and reagents required for nitraton of benzene
conc nitiric acid and conc sulfuric acid at a temperature of 50C - conc sulfuric acid acts as a catalyst
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What is required for the halogenation of benzene?
a halogen carrier - FeCl3, AlCl3, Fe, FeBr3, AlBr3
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What is the result of phenol + bromine
undergoes electrophilic substitution taking place at room temp, without a halogen carrier catalyst -organe bromine colour disappears and a white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is formed
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What is a suitable oxidising agent for alcohols and aldehydes and would would we observe?
acidified potassium dichromate- would change from orange to green
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What is a suitabe reducing agent for aldehydes and ketones?
aldehydes and ketones react with NaBH4 in a nuclophilic addition reaction
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What test could be used to detect a carbonyl group?
add brady's reagent to an aldehye or ketone and a yellow/orange precipitate forms (no precipitation with an ester or carboxylic acid)
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How can we test whether or not a mixture is a ketone or aldehyde?
add tollen's reagent (a weak oxidising agent)- a silver/grey solid is formed if it is an aldehyde but not if its a ketone
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How can Tollen's reagent be made in the lab?
aq sodium hydroxide is added to aq silver nitrate until a brown precipitate of silver oxide is formed, dilute aq ammonia is then added til precipitate dissolves, colourless solution is Tollen's reagent
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What is the reaction between carboxylic acids and metals?
a salt is formed and hydrogen gas- there will be effervescence
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What is the reaction between carboxylic acids and bases?
a salt is formed and water
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What is the reaction between carboxylic acids and carbonates?
a salt is formed, carbon dioxide and water
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How can esters be made from carboxylic acids?
Reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst (usually H2SO4) - this is esterification
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How can esters be made from acid anhydrides?
gently heating acid ahydrides with an alcohol - produces a much better yield than carboxylic acids
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Describe acid hydrolysis of esters
the ester is heated under reflux with dilute H2SO4 or dilute HCl acting as a catalyst. Ester is broken down by water. This reaction is reversible
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Describe alkaline hydrolysis of esters
Aq NaOH or KOH is refluxed with ester and forms a sodium or potassium salt of the carboxylic acid. This reaction is non-reversible
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What is formed when amines react with acids?
a salt
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How can aliphatic amines be prepared?
warming halogenoalkanes gently with an excess of ammonia, using ethanol as the solvent
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How can aromatic amines be prepared?
nitroarenes such as nitrobenzene can be reduced using a mixture of tin and conc HCl, heated under reflux, followed by neutralisation of the excess HCl
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What is diazotisation?
First step in making azo dyes. When a mixture of phenylamine and nitrous acid is kept below 10C, a diazonium salt is formed.
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What is coupling?
Second step in making azo dyes. Diazonium salt is reacted with a phenol or other aromatic compound under alkaline conditions. Two benzene rings are linked through an azo functional group.
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What is formed when a primary alcohol is oxidised?
An aldehyde then a carboxylic acid under reflux
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What is formed when a secondary alcohol is oxidised?
A ketone
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What is formed when an aldehyde is oxidised?
Carboxylic acids (carried out under reflux)
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Name some uses of phenols
Theyre found in: Surfactants, detergents, antiseptics, disinfectants. Used in the preparation of: apirin and they produce epoxy resins for paints
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What is the reaction between phenol and NaOH?
When dissolved in H2O phenol forms a weak acidic solution by losing the H+ from the -OH group. Phenol is neutralised by aq NaOH to form a salt, sodium phenoxide and water (H+ lost from phenol bonds to -OH in NaOH to give H2O)
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What is the reaction between phenol and sodium?
the metal effervesces producing hydrogen gas. The organic product is sodium phenoxide, a salt.
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Card 2

Front

Define aromatic

Back

the cyclic structure of a hydrocarbon, the presence of a benze ring

Card 3

Front

Define electrophile

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define redox reaction

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define reflux

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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