Right Realism

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Realism sees crime (Especially street crime) as...
...a real and growing problem.
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Crime destroys...
...communities/society's work/social cohesion.
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Right realism has been very influential in..
...the USA/UK
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For example: the main theorist, Wilson, was special adviser to...
...President Ronald Reagan.
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Wilson is the origin of widely adopted policies such as...
...the zero tolerance policy on street crime/disorder.
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Right realists views on crime correspond closely with those of...
...Neo-conservative governments during the 1970s and 1980s.
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For example:
Policy makers argued that nothing works. Criminologists had produced many theories of crime but no workable solutions.
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This led to a shift in offficial thinking away from the search or the causes of crime and towards ...
...a search for a pratical crime control.
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Right realism criticises labelling theorists...
...for failing to offer any practical solutions to crime.
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Right realists reject Marxists...
....and others who believe that crime is committed due to structural or economic factors.
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What 3 factors do right realists believe cause crime?
1. Biological differences 2. Socialisation and the underclass 3.Rational choice theory.
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Who puts forward a biosocial theory of criminal behaviour?
Wilson and Herrnstein.
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Biological differences between individuals make some people...
...innately more strongly predisposed to commit crime than others.
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For example: Personality traits such as...
...aggression/risk taking/low impulse control which put some people at greater risk of offending.
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Similarly, who argues that the main cause of crime is low intelligent (which they see as biologically determined)?
Herrnstein and Murray.
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However whilst biology may increase te chance of an individul offending...
...effective socialisation decreases the risk.
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How does effective socialisation decrease the risk of offending?
It involves learning self control/internalising moral values of right/wrong.
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What is the best agency of socialisation according to right realists?
The nuclear family.
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What does Murray argue is causing rising crime rates?
A growing underclass who are defined by their deviant behaviour and their inability to effectively socialise their children.
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According to Murray, the underclass is growing in both the..
..UK and the USA.
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Their growth is a result of...
...welfare dependency.
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What has caused people to become increasingly dependent on the state since the 1960s?
The welfare state's 'generous revolution.'
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It has led to a decline in marriage and therefore an increase in...
...lone-parent, matrifocial families because women and children can live off benefits.
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This mens that men no longer have to take responsibilities for their families and do not need to...
...work.
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Who argues that crime is the result of: "Growing up surrounded by deviant, delinquent and criminal adults in a practically perfect criminogenic environment?"
Benett, Dilulio and Walters.
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What important theory of right realism assumes that individuals have free will and the power of reason?
Rational choice theory.
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What do rational choice theorists (such as Clarke) argue?
The decision to commit crime is a choice based on a rational calculation of the likely consequences.
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Right realists argue that currently, the percieved costs of crime are...
...low.
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This is why the crime rate has...
...increased.
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For example:
In their view, there is often little risk of being caught and punished.
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What did Wilson argue?
If the supply and value of legitimate opportunities was declining at the very time the cost of illegitimate opportunities was also declining, a rational teenager might conclude that it made more sense to steal cars than wash them.
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A similar idea is contained in Felson's...
...routine activity theory.
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What 3 things did Felson argue had to be present in order for a crime to be commited?
1. A motivated offender 2. A suitable target 3.The absence of a capable guardian.
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Offenders are assumed to act rationally, so the presence of a guardian is likely to...
...deter them from offending.
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Evidence:
In the chaos immediately following Hurricane Andrew in Florida in 1982, patrols by local citizens to protect property during the absence of police preventing looting and crime rates went down during this period.
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Right realists do not believe that it is productive to deal with...
..the causes of crime.
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Why?
The causes of crime cannot be easily changed.
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Instead, right realists seek to devise practical measures to make crime less...
...attractive.
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Rather eliminating the unlying causes of crime or rehabilitating criminals...
...their main focus is on control, containment and punishment of offenders.
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What does Wilson and Kelling's article Broken Windows argue?
It is essential to maintain the orderly character of neighbourhoods to prevent crime taking over. Any sign of deterioration (such as vandalism) must be dealth with immediately. There should be a 'zero tolerance policy.' on undesirable behaviour.
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What do they say that relates directly to rational choice theory?
Crime prevention policies should reduce the rewards for criminals but increase the costs of crime.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Crime destroys...

Back

...communities/society's work/social cohesion.

Card 3

Front

Right realism has been very influential in..

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

For example: the main theorist, Wilson, was special adviser to...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Wilson is the origin of widely adopted policies such as...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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