Right Realism

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Who thought that crime is biological?
Wilson and Herrnstein
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What did they say? (hint: personality)
That some people are genetically more predisposed to crime, than others. Personality traits such as aggression, extroversion and risk-taking, predisposes people towards offending.
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What did they they think is the main cause of crime?
Low intelligence
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Give 2 negative evaluation points to Wilson & Herrnstein's theory.
1) It suggests that the offenders are not to blame for their actions, which is unethical for the victim. 2) Some people argue that criminals need intelligence, to be able to plan ahead their crimes.
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What did Charles Murray think caused the increase in crime rate?
The growing underclass. They fail to socialise their children properly, therefore the children do not know right from wrong.
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According to Murray, why is the underclass growing?
The welfare state
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How is the decline in marriage affecting crime rate?
There has been an increase in children being raised by single-mothers, & this is not effective enough, especially for boys. Absent fathers mean that boys lack paternal discipline, & therefore often turn to other delinquent role models on the street.
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What was Clarke's theory?
Rational Choice Theory
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What did Clarke argue?
That before committing a crime, an offender weighs up the potential benefits & the potential costs of committing a crime. If the potential rewards are greater, then an individual is more likely to commit the crime.
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What did Clarke think caused the increase in crime, in the 1960's?
The punishments were less harsh.
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Give one negative evaluation point of Clarke's Rational Choice Theory.
Some crimes are impulsive, such as drunk or violent crimes.
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How to Right Realists tackle crime? (hint: BW)
Broken Windows
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Who thought of the metaphor 'broken windows'?
Wilson and Kelling
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What does the broken windows metaphor mean? (don't relate to crime yet)
Once a window is broken, there will be more initiative for people to continue breaking them. If you tackle the broken window as soon as it happens, then no more will be broken.
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How does this relate to crime?
Serious crimes (e.g.: bank robbery) escalate from small crimes (e.g.: theft). Police should tackle low-level crime straight away, & therefore the higher levels of crime will decrease.
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Who's evidence supports this way of tackling crime?
Bratton
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What was the evidence?
He introduced this theory in New York City in 1994. This initiative cracked down on public drinking, disorderly behaviour, & street prostitution. When he resigned in 1996, crime rates down almost 40%, & the homicide rate was halved.
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What is a positive evaluation point of this way of tackling crime?
Other solutions are much more expensive, and would take a long time to prove effective. Wilson and Kelling's theory changed things quickly, with minimal expense.
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What is a negative evaluation point of Bratton's evidence?
Serious crime rates also fell in other areas of America, which didn't adopt this zero-tolerance strategy. Therefore, Bratton's evidence is not conclusive.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did they say? (hint: personality)

Back

That some people are genetically more predisposed to crime, than others. Personality traits such as aggression, extroversion and risk-taking, predisposes people towards offending.

Card 3

Front

What did they they think is the main cause of crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give 2 negative evaluation points to Wilson & Herrnstein's theory.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Charles Murray think caused the increase in crime rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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