Revolution of 1905

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Identify four key causes of the Revolution
long-term social and economic problems, medium-term political repression and reform, the Russo-Japanese War,Bloody Sunday
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Identify 5 reasons why Russia was difficult to govern.
geography vast/poor communications; backward economy; multi-ethnic, multi-lingual population, multi-religious
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What proportion of the population was Russian?
56%
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What proportion of the population by 1887 was peasant
82%
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What proportion of the population by 1897 was working class
4%
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What proportion of the population by 1897 was middle class
1.5%
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What proportion of the population was Upper class
12%
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8. Identify at least 9 different nationalities and 4 religions co-existing within the Russian empire.
Belorussians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Fins, Estonians, Poles, Georgians, Armenians, Azeris, Tartars, Kazaks, Uzbeks, Tartars, Turkomen; Orthodox Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Animists
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9. How did the Tsars try to cope with this multi-ethnic and mutli-lingual diversity?
Russification
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What were the two most important supports for Tsarism?
Army and Orthodox church
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11. Identify 2 broad policy directions of the Russian Tsars to try to overcome its difficulties?
Reform and repressions
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12. Identify 2 ways in which Alexander II and his successors introduced reforms
Alex II introduced political reforms: emancipated the serfs (1861), introduced Zemstva (1869) and Trial by Jury (1874); Alexander III and Nicholas II introduced economic reforms – Nicolai Bunge and Ivan Vyshnegradsky created a Peasant Land Bank
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Identify 3 finance ministers from this period.
Bunge, Vyshnegradsky, Witte
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How did they fund modernisation?
foregin loans
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15. When was the Trans-Siberian Railway completed, and what happened within Russian industry after that time?
1903, economic slump
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Identify 3 ways in which modernisation created more problems for the Tsar?
created a potentially radical working and middle class who would seek political as well as social reforms; the increase in population in the towns led to poor conditions which in turn might lead to political radicalisation
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Who intensified the policy of Russification under Alexander III?
Konstantin Pobedonostsev
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18. What did Alexander III introduce to combat the Narodniks or ‘The People’s Will’?
Statue state of security
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What else could the Tsar use to stamp down on political radicals?
Okhrana (secret police)
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How could repression make things worse for the Tsar?
alienate and radicalise groups that might otherwise have been moderate
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Neither the Social Democrats nor Social Revolutionaries led the way in the 1905 Revolution; so who led the way?
The Revolution was really led by the Liberals and peasants and workers largely without the involvement of radicals
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Identify the divisions within the Social Democrats before 1905.
Bolsheviks, Menshiviks
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How did the Liberals try to create a united front with workers and peasants?
They established the ‘Union of Unions’ which aimed to create a broad-based alliance of peasants and factory workers
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Who said ‘We need a small, victorious war to avert revolution’
Victor Plehve
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Which Port was captured by the Japanese in January 1905?
Port Arthur
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At which battle was the Russian fleet almost destroyed in May 1905?
Tsushima
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How can it be said that the War represented a ‘catalyst’ upon revolutionary conditions?
It made the Tsar seem weaker than before, encouraging opposition, the drain of resources to the south eastern tip of the empire led to shortages in the towns and countryside
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How did Father Gapon’s petition address the Tsar?
Little Father
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What kind of protest was it?
it was social rather than political – seeking the Tsar’s help
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How did Bloody Sunday change things?
it politicized the masses – turning them against the Tsar – breaking the myth of the Tsar as the ‘people’s helper’
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Who said that 1905 was a ‘dress-rehearsal for the revolution’?
Trotsky
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Card 2

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Identify 5 reasons why Russia was difficult to govern.

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geography vast/poor communications; backward economy; multi-ethnic, multi-lingual population, multi-religious

Card 3

Front

What proportion of the population was Russian?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What proportion of the population by 1887 was peasant

Back

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Card 5

Front

What proportion of the population by 1897 was working class

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