Revison: Personality lecture 3

What do psychometric tests measure?
Some psychological construct
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What are examples of psychometric tests?
IQ tests, personality tests, dementia tests, SAT
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What are psychometric tests popular in?
Recruitment
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What are the advantage(s) of psychometric tests?
They are less biased and improve transparency
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What are the disadvantage(s) of psychometric tests?
They can be gamed and we don't know what they measure
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When were imperial examinations first used and why?
In China from the 7th-20th centuries in order to gain access to the civil service
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What was the pass rate of the imperial examinations in china?
5%
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By 1370 how long did the imperial examinations last in china?
24-72 hours
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When were women allowed to take the imperial examinations in china?
mid 19th century
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What did the syllabus include on imperial examinations?
Classics, maths, calligraphy, law, horse riding and archery
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What did the imperial examinations in China create?
A common cultural language which helped unify the empire
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What did imperial examinations give legitimacy too?
Achievement by merit helped give legitimacy to imperial rule
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What were the issues with the imperial examinations in China?
That they had a lack of technical and pratical expertise as well as a lack of creativity. Created too much respect for authority.
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When were the imperial examinations in China abolished?
1905
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What was the legacy of the Chinese imperial examinations?
They spread to other Asian countries, then Britain, then other European countries then the US, then led to graduate recruitment schemes.
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What did the idea of imperial examinations come to Britain?
They came via the East India Trading Company and were implemented mid 19th century
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What is the euphemism treadmill?
When a term for a disability becomes offensive so they replace it with a new term which then becomes an insult
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What is intellectual disability?
When someone is stupid and struggles to do things
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What are all the IQ tests?
Binet-Simon Scale, Intelligence Quotient, Stanford-Binet Scale, Individual vs Group Tests, Army Alpha and Beta, Raven's progressive Matrices, WAIS + WISC
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What is the Binet-Simon scale?
The first intelligence test, introduced in France in 1905
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What was the Binet-Simon scale developed to do?
identify children with intellectual disabilities, so that alternative education could be provided
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What is in the Binet-Simon scale?
30 test items of increasing complexity
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What is the first test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Le Regard
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What is the forth test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Recognition of food
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What is the fifth test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Quest of food complicated by a slight mechanical delay
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What is the seventh test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Verbal knowledge of objects
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What is the tenth test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Immediate Comparison of Two lines of Unequal Lengths
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What is the fifteen test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Repetition of Sentence of Fifteen Words
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What is the eighteenth test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Drawing a Design from Memory
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What is the twentysixth test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Synthesis of Three words in one sentence
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What is the twentyseventh test item of the Binet-Simon scale?
Reply to an Abstract Question
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What is the aim of the Le Regard/ first test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
In this test the examiner seeks to discover if there exists that coordination in the movement of the head and the eyes which is associated with the act of vision. If such coordination does exist it proves that the subject not only sees but "regards"
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What is the procedure of the Le Regard/ first test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
A lighted match is slowly moved before the eyes of the subject in such a way as to provoke a movement of the head or of the eyes to follow the flame
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What is the procedure of the recognition of food/ fourth item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
To find out if the subject can make the distinction by sight between familiar food and what cannot be eaten
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What is the procedure of the recognition of food/ fourth test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
A piece of chocolate and a little cube of white wood of similar dimensions are presented, the test is to see if the subject by sight alone can make the distinction between the two objects and notice that one is edible and one is not.
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What is the quest of food complicated by a slight mechanical delay/ fifth item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
This test is designed to bring into play a rudiment of memory, an effort of will and a coordination of movements
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What is the procedure of quest of food complicated by a slight mechanical delay/ fifth test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
A candy is wrapped in paper in front of the P to see if they can remember it has candy in it and unwrap it.
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What is the Verbal knowledge of objects / seventh item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
The object of this test is to discover is associations exist between things and their names
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What is the procedure of Verbal knowledge of objects / seventh test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
You ask the child if they can point to a body part. (for example head, eyes)
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What is the Immediate Comparison of two lines of unequal lengths / Tenth item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
This test is designed to test if they have the ability to understand comparisons
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What is the procedure of Immediate Comparison of two lines of unequal length/ tenth test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
They are shown two lines and must answer questions like show me the longer
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What is the Repetition of sentences of fifteen words/ fifteenth item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
This test is a test of immediate memory, recollection of words and proof of voluntary attention
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What is the procedure of Repetition of sentences of fifteen words/ fifteenth test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
You say a sentence out loud which contains 15 words and then get the child to repeat it
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What is the Drawing a Design from Memory/ eighteenth item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
This is a test of attention, visual memory and a little analysis
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What is the procedure of Drawing a Design from Memory/ eighteenth test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
The subject is shown two designs which they must draw from memory
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What is the Synthesis of Three words in one sentence / twentysixth item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
This is a test of spontaneity, facility of invention and combination and aptitude to construct sentences
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What is the procedure of Three words in one sentence / twentysixth test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
Three words are given and the child is asked to make a sentence using those three words.
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What is the reply to an abstract question/ twentyseventh item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
It is designed to test mental debility, it is rapid, easily given and sufficiently precise
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What is the procedure of the reply to an abstract question/ twentyseventh test item on the Binet-Simon Scale?
This consists in reading the begining of a sentence and suspending the voice when one arrives at the point and repeating "what ought one to do?"
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How was the Binet-Simon Scale test standardised?
By using a group of 50 children (10 in five different age groups) who were selected by their teachers as being average for their age
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What is the Binet-Simon scale used for?
To assign a mental age to a child if they pass the tests
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At what age do children usually pass the Binet-Simon scale?
10 years old
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What did William Stern base his intelligence quotient on?
Binet's idea of a mental age
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What year did William Stern develop his idea of an intelligence quotient?
1912
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Who came up with the intelligence quotient?
William Stern
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What is the median raw score of norming sample for the IQ test?
100
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What is the standard deviation of IQ test?
15 points
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Is the IQ test a linear scale? (Is someone with the IQ of 120 twice as intelligent as someone with an IQ of 60?)
Yes
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Who came up with the Standford - Binet scale and when?
Lewis Terman (1916)
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What did Lewis Terman do to come up with the Stanford-Binet scale?
Revised the Binet-Simon Scale
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Is the Stanford-Binet scale still used today?
Yes, 5th edition was released in 2003
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What versions of the Stanford-Binet scale sub-tests are there?
A verbal and non-verbal version
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How long does the Stanford-Binet scale take to administrate?
15 minutes to 1hr 15 minutes
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What was the standardization sample of the Stanford-Binet scale?
4,800 participants who varied in terms of age, sex, race.ethnicity, geographic region and socioeconomic level
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What did the development of the original Stanford-Binet scale lead to?
A huge increase in the use of psychometric tests in schools and the workplace
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What was Terman and others influenced by when developing psychometric tests?
Eugenics
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What was a consequence of Terman and others being influenced by eugenics when developing their psychometric tests?
It led to some controversial ideas being promoted (like discouraging individuals with low IQ from having children)
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What did Binet say when he heard that people were promoting controversial ideas such as people with low IQ shouldn't have children.
He condemned those who with 'brutal pessimism' and 'deplorable verdicts' were promoting the concept of intelligence as a single, unitary construct
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What are the Binet-Simon and Stanford-Binet scales?
Individual tests
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What is an individual test?
When a test is carried out by a trained administrator and one person is tested at a time
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What are the disadvantages of the individual test?
They are slow and expensive if large numbers of people need to be tested
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Who developed group tests?
The U.S. Army
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Why did the U.S Army develop group tests?
With the outbreak of WW1 they developed them allowing them to assess large numbers of new recruits
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What was the Army Alpha test used for?
To determine a soldier's capability of serving, job classification and potential for leadership positions
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How long did the Army Alpha test take?
Around 45 minutes
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How many people were in each group in the Army Alpha test?
100-200 men
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What is the Army Beta test?
A test which was developed after the Army Alpha test which is non-verbal
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Who sat the Army Beta test?
Recruits who were illiterate or non-English speakers
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What % of men were unable to read and understand newspapers?
30%
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Who worked on the Alpha and Beta Army tests during WW1?
David Welshler
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What did David Welshler say about intelligence tests?
He objected to intelligence being reduced to a single number
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What intelligence tests did Wechsler come up with?
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (1939) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) (1949)
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When is the WAIS-V due to be released?
2019
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What are the four indexes in the WAIS and WISC tests?
Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Working memory Index, Processing Speed Index
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How many sub tests are there in the WAIS and WISC?
10
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What are the 10 subtests split over in the WAIS and WISC?
Four indexes
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What can be combined from the WAIS and WISC to give a Full Scale IQ?
The 10 subtests which are split over four indexes
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When was Raven's progressive matrices developed?
In the 1930s
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Where is Raven's progressive matrices used?
It is has a widespread use in armed forces around the world
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What did Raven's progressive Matrices lead too?
The flynn effect
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Why is it important that the IQ tests work?
It can make a huge difference to an individuals life (SAT's allow you to go to university in America, getting a clinical diagnosis means you can access support)
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What is an advantage of an individual test?
It can test young children and keep them interested and motivated
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What is an advantage of an individual test?
You can monitor attention and interpret performance
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What is an advantage of an individual test?
You can tailor the test to the individual (important when dealing with clinical groups)
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What is an advantage of an individual test?
You can use a wide range of test items
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What is an advantage of an individual test?
It is the best option for diagnosis
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What is an advantage of an individual test?
It is important when carrying out research
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What is an disadvantage of an individual test?
They are time consuming
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What is an disadvantage of an individual test?
They are expensive
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What is an disadvantage of an individual test?
They require training
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What is an advantage of a group test?
They typically require inductive reasoning (identifying rules/patters and applying them)
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What is an advantage of a group test?
There is usually one item type
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What is an advantage of a group test?
They are usually multiple choice
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What is an advantage of a group test?
They are useful for selection
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What does reliability look at?
Is the test consistent in what it does
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What does Validity look at?
Does the test measure what you want to know / what we want to measure
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What is test-retest reliability?
Test scores should be reliable over time. If we test people once and retest them later the scores should be correlated
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What things might cause a test not to have test-retest reliability?
If children or moods are involved
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What is internal reliability?
If a test is made up of different components (types of questions/puzzles) then the should all positively correlate with each other which suggests that they are all measuring the same thing.
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What is split-half reliability?
It assesses the internal consistency of a test to make sure all parts of the test contribute equally to what is being measured
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What is predictive validity?
Ability tests should predict success on tasks that we expected to require that ability
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Who looked at intelligence and educational achievement?
Dear et al (2007)
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What did Dear et al (2007) look at in terms of intelligence and educational achievement?
How well IQ scores at age 11 predicted GCSE scores at age 16
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How many children did Dear et al (2007) test when looking at IQ and GCSE's?
Over 70,000 English school children
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What were the results of Dear et al (2007)
There is some correlation between some GCSE subject grades and IQ Scores
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What is differential validity?
Ability tests should not predict success on tasks that do not require that ability
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What is an issue with the design of IQ tests?
Test items that do not correlate with the rest of the IQ test are sometimes removed
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What is an issue with the design of IQ tests?
Tests are designed to be unbiased however, spatial reasoning questions are sometimes removed
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What is the Flynn effect?
That when new (younger) people take the old IQ tests they get higher marks and we don't know why
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Why might new (younger) people get higher marks when they take the old IQ tests? (Flynn effect)?
Because either the new test is harder or people are getting more intelligent
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What provides good evidence for the Flynn effect?
The Ravens Matrices
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Has the gain in US IQ changed on the Raven's progressive matrices scores?
Yes, IQ has increased by over 25 points between 1950-2000
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What are examples of psychometric tests?

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IQ tests, personality tests, dementia tests, SAT

Card 3

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What are psychometric tests popular in?

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Card 4

Front

What are the advantage(s) of psychometric tests?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the disadvantage(s) of psychometric tests?

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