Chemistry Revision

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  • Created by: plu10710
  • Created on: 26-03-14 13:48
what is the correct chemical symbol for sodium?
Na - big N, small a
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What does the nucleus of an atom contain?
Protons and Neutrons
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What are the charges in protons, neutrons and electrons?
Protons are positively charged, neutrons are neutrally charged and electrons are negatively charged
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What is the atomic number of an atom?
The number of protons it contains
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What is the electronic structure of an element with 17 electrons?
2,8,7
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Two elements have these electronic structures: 2,1 and 2,8,1. What can you say about the elements according to their group in the periodic table?
They are both in Group 1
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What do elements in a group have the same number of?
Electrons in the highest occupied energy level or outer shell
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What do elements in a period have the same number of?
Occupied energy levels or shells
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What happens when an element from group 1 reacts with water?
A metal hydroxide and hydrogen are formed
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What does an ionic bond involve?
Moving electrons between atoms
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What is an ionic bond?
A force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
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What does a covalent bond involve?
Sharing electrons between atoms
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One way of testing for carbon doxide is by....
...using limewater as the carbon dioxide reacts with it to turn the limewater cloudy
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Calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide to produce what?
Calcium carbonate
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How do you produce calcium oxide from calcium carbonate?
By heating it
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Limestone is mostly made up of what?
Calcium carbonate
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Water is one of the ingredients of concrete. What are the other ingredients?
Cement, sand and crushed rock
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What is an advantage of using concrete to make building foundations?
It is strong when squashed
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What is a benefit of a limestone quarry?
There is employmet for local people
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Why can gold be found in the Earth's crust in its native state?
Gold is very unreactive
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Why is aluminium extracted from its ore by electrolysis?
Aluminium is more reactive than carbon
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Why is iron extracted from its ore by reduction with carbon or carbon monoxide?
Iron is less reactive than carbon
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What happens to iron oxide in a blast furnace?
It is reduced to form iron
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What is the percentage of iron in the iron from a blast furnace?
96%
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What process is used to purify copper?
Electrolysis
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What does phytomining involve?
Using plants to absorb metal compounds
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Copper can be obtained by reacting solutions of copper compunds with scrap iron. What is this reaction called?
Displacement
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What do we call the compunds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms?
Hydrocarbons
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What happens to a liquid during its separation from a mixture by distillation?
Evaporating followed by condensing
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In comparison with large hydrocarbons, how would you describe small hydrocarbons?
They are more volatile
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2
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How can alkanes be described?
They are saturated
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The most viscous hydrocarbons are likely to leave the fractionating column at...
...the bottom
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Which gas is not formed by the combustion of a hydrocarbon
Oxygen
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What gas is mainly responsible for acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide
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What is caused by the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere?
Global warming
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What are the products of complete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
Carbon dioxide and water
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Incomplete combustion can produce black particles of what?
Carbon
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What does biofuel come from?
Plant material
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Which process allows large hydrocarbons to be broken down into smaller hydrocarbons?
Cracking
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What is the formula for an alkene?
C2H4
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What happens when an alkene is mixed with bromine water?
The bromine water turns from orange to colourless
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Why are alkenes unsaturated?
They have a double bond
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What is the formula for ethanol?
C2H5OH
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What is formed when ethene reacts with steam?
Ethanol
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What is one advantage of making ethanol by fermentation?
The raw material is a renewable resource
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What is the monomer is poly(ethene)?
ethene
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Why can polymers be difficult to dispose of?
They do not break down easily
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Where are vegetable oils found?
In seeds, nuts and some fruit
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What chemical is needed to harden vegetable oils?
Hydrogen
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What conditions are needed for hydrogenation?
60°C and a nickel catalyst
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What is mayonnaise an example of?
An emulsion
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Starting with the centre of the Earth, what is the correct order for the layers of the Earth?
Core, mantle, crust
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What causes tectonic plates to move?
Convection currents in the mantle
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At what rates do tectonic plates move?
A few centimetres per year
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What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Nitrogen
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What was the most abundant gas in the early atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide
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What is the approx. percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere today?
20%
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What caused the proportion of oxygen, in the atmosphere, to increase?
Photosynthesis
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What was one of the reasons for the decrease in carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere?
Photosynthesis or it became locked up in fossil fuels and sedimentary rocks
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One theory as to how life was formed involves the interaction between hydrocarbons, ammonia and lightning. What was the mixture formed called?
The primordial soup
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Liquid air can be fractionally distilled to produce various gases with industrial uses. This is because the gases in air have what?
Different boiling points
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the nucleus of an atom contain?

Back

Protons and Neutrons

Card 3

Front

What are the charges in protons, neutrons and electrons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the atomic number of an atom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the electronic structure of an element with 17 electrons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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