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  • Created by: aboy
  • Created on: 29-07-19 10:57
Bacteria
A single celled micro –organism. Most bacteria are harmless, but others are harmful and can causing food poisoning. They can be divided into three groups: Harmless bacteria, Pathogenic bacteria and Food spoilage bacteria. Can be found everywhere.
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Microorganism
tiny organism (you can only see with a microscope) these include; yeast, mould and bacteria.
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Mould
Tiny fungi which produce filaments (a stem). Moulds are a type of micro – organism. They are used in food production to make cheese, cured sausages and soya sauce
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Enzyme
they are protein molecules that are present in all living things. They break down fruit and juice.
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Temperature
Food should be cooked thoroughly to kill food poisoning bacteria: Cooking - temperature to at least 63℃ until served , Fridge - temperature above 5℃ (of the refrigerator) causing bacteria in other foods to multiply, meat cooking temperature(5 & 60°c)
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Moisture
Food dehydration (the loss or removal of water from something) is a process of reducing moisture of food to low levels for improved shelf life by adding one or more forms of energy to the food.
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Time
Time is constraint. Bacteria need time (but not a long time)
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Nutrients
compounds of foods essential to life and health, providing us with energy, the building blocks for repair and growth and substances necessary to regulate chemical processes.
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PH level
A pH of 0 is totally acidic, while a pH of 14 is completely alkaline. A pH of 7 is neutral. Your blood is slightly alkaline, with a pH between 7.35 and 7.45.
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Oxidation
Oxygen and food. When chemicals in food are exposed to oxygen in the air, their chemical composition changes and they begin to break down. Animal and plant tissues contain antioxidant molecules to prevent this from happening.
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Starter culture
This is a microbiological culture which actually performs fermentation. These starters usually consist of a cultivation medium, such as grains, seeds, or nutrient liquids.
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Food poising
illness caused by bacteria or other toxins in food, typically with vomiting and diarrhoea. To prevent Food Poisoning – remember the 4 C’s: Cleaning, Cooking, Chilling & Cross contamination
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Pathogen
harmful bacteria that causes food poisoning: Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum, E coli, Campylobacter
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Probiotics
Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are good for you, especially your digestive system.
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Contamination
This happens when bacteria get transferred from raw food to other foods Example; meat juices from a stake being stored the top of the fridge dripping being leaked onto a salad on the next self-down. Bacteria – They like heat, moist/wet Micro-
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Salmonella
(usually meat, poultry, eggs, or milk)
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Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is a foodborne bacteria that can be transmitted through air droplets when coughing or sneezing. Some healthy humans carry this bacterium in the nose, in the back of the throat and on the skin
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Clostridium perfingens
Meat products such as stews, casseroles, and gravy are the most common sources of illness from C. Most outbreaks come from food whose temperature is poorly controlled. If food is kept between 21 and 60 ℃.
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Clostridium botulinum
(bacteria grows on food and produces toxins that, when ingested, cause paralysis)
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Bacillus cereus
(found in soil and food)
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food borne diseases
any illness resulting from the spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans
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E coli
(Ground beef. When cattle are slaughtered and processed, E. coli bacteria in their intestines can get on the meat, Unpasteurized milk or fresh produce)
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Listeria
Listeria is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems: Unpasteurised milk or products made from it, Soft cheeses, Ready-to-eat foods (eg pre-packed food), Unwashed vegetables
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Campylobacter
(found in the gut and faeces (poo) of animals and is commonly found in or on raw poultry.)
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Norovirus
Norovirus illness is not related to the flu, which is caused by influenza virus.
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Use by date
a date marked on a perishable product, especially a foodstuff, indicating the recommended date by which it should be used or consumed.
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Best before date
It doesn’t mean food is harmful it means food might lose its taste and texture but you should be aware of meat and fish products.
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High risk food
Dairy products (milk, cream, cheese, yogurt, and products containing them such as cream pies and quiches), Eggs, Meat or meat products, Poultry, Fish and seafood.
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Low risk food
That are less-likely to cause food poisoning because they have (1) high acid content (pH 4.5 or lower), or (2) low water content.
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Danger zone
Temperatures Below 5°C or above 63°C which food-borne bacteria can grow i
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Hygiene
Food hygiene are the conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety of food from production to consumption.
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Kosher
Prepared food that follows the requirements of Jewish dietary laws.
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Halal
Slaughtered or prepared using a method that follows Islamic dietary laws.
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Ovo-Lacto vegetarian
Vegetarians who do not eat: fish, meat or meat products, BUT eat eggs and dairy products
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Ethical
what people think is right or wrong. Loads of people choose food based on their ideal of right or wrong, with reasons.
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Diabetes
A disorder where blood glucose levels stay too high because the pancreases either can’t produce enough insulin or the body resists it.
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Coeliac
When the digestive system is sensitive to gluten and can’t digest it
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Gluten
A protein found in wheat flour, that makes dough elastic (stretchy)
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Malnutrition
A nutrient needed by our bodies in large amounts, e.g. vitamins and minerals
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Allergy
An immune system response to certain substance (an allergen), e.g. in fish, nuts and egg
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Anaphylaxis
A Hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
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Epi pen
Stands for Epinephrine autoinjector, a medical device for injecting a measured dose or doses of epinephrine by means of autoinjector technology. It is most often used for the treatment of anaphylaxis.
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Senses
Influences our food choices: sight, taste, touch, smell
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Taste
Food must have an enjoyable taste. The method of cooking, freshness of ingredients, choice of herbs, seasoning and flavour combinations all affects the overall taste.
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Aroma
A distinctive smell, usually as pleasant smell
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Texture
Foods can be soft or hard, mushy or crunchy, or smooth or lumpy. Texture is important to the enjoyment and acceptability of foods.
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Olfactory
The body’s ‘smell device’ which enables you to detect aroma and smells.
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Sensory analysis
Testing food samples by tasting, touching and visual method.
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Palate
The roof of the mouth, which is where the mouth senses are.
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Rating test
Allows people to rate the extent of which they either like or dislike one aspect in a number of similar food products or to rate different aspects of one product.
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Star profile
one method of recording sensory analysis results
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Triangle testing
Three products are tested, where two products are the same and one has a tweaked recipe. The taster must identify the one that differs from the other.
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Paired preference testing
People are given two slightly different foods. The taster then chooses their favourite of the two foods
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Regional
A cuisine based upon national, state or local regions. Regional cuisines may vary based upon food availability and trade, varying climates, cooking traditions and practices, and cultural difference.
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Multicultural
A country or place that that is made up of people from several cultural or ethnic groups within a society.
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Cuisine
A style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.
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Cardiovascular (disease)
Refers to a disease of the heart and blood vessels
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Eatwell guide
An easy way of showing how much or little of each food groups is recommended.
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Healthy eating
Eating a variety of foods that give you the nutrients you need to maintain your health, feel good, and have energy. These nutrients include protein, carbohydrates, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals.
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Physical activity level (PAL)
A way to express a person’s physical activity level (over a 24 – hour period) as a single number
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Availability
Food availability is when all people have sufficient quantities of food available on a consistent basis.
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Seasonality, lifestyle
Which time of the year different foods are available.
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Palatability
The property of being acceptable to the mouth
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Microwave
Kitchen appliance that warms food by passing an electromagnetic wave
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Radiation
The transfer of energy through waves of radiation (there is no direct contact).
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Conduction
The transfer of heat energy through solids by the vibration of particles.
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Convection
The transfer of heat energy through gasses or liquids by circulating current
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Denaturing
When the chemical bonds holding protein together breakdown causing protein to unravel
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PH level
The right PH; not to Acidic or Alkaline
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Marinade
To soak something in a mixture of things such as oil, wine, vinegar and herbs before cooking (to give it more flavour)
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Enzymic browning
When you slice food fruits (apple, pear etc.), the oxygen in the air will turn the fruit brown. The enzyme inside the fruit speed up the process. Leaving fruit (Bananas, avocado etc.) to overripe give them a brown colour too.
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Gelatinisation
when the starch particle swells and burst, thickening a liquid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

tiny organism (you can only see with a microscope) these include; yeast, mould and bacteria.

Back

Microorganism

Card 3

Front

Tiny fungi which produce filaments (a stem). Moulds are a type of micro – organism. They are used in food production to make cheese, cured sausages and soya sauce

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

they are protein molecules that are present in all living things. They break down fruit and juice.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Food should be cooked thoroughly to kill food poisoning bacteria: Cooking - temperature to at least 63℃ until served , Fridge - temperature above 5℃ (of the refrigerator) causing bacteria in other foods to multiply, meat cooking temperature(5 & 60°c)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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