Revision for Chemistry 2b

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What are the four different factors that affect the rate of a reaction?
Temperature, concentration/pressure, catalyst, and surface area
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Name three ways of measuring the rate of reaction
Precipitation reaction, measure the change in mass, or measure the volume of gas given off
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Explain how using a higher temperature increases the frequency of successful collisions between particles
When the temperature is increased, the particles all move quicker as they gain kinetic energy. If they're moving quicker, they're going to collide more, so the frequency of successful collisions between particles increases
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What is activation energy?
It is the minimum amount of energy needed by the particles to react
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List two advantages of using catalysts in industrial processes
1. They increase the rate of reaction, which saves money as the pant doesn't need to operate for as long 2. They allow the reaction to work at a lower temperature, which reduces energy consumption and reduces emissions
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List two disadvantages of using catalysts in industrial processes
1. They can be very expensive to buy, and often need to be removed from the product and cleaned 2. They can be 'poisoned' by impurities, so they stop working
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What is an exothermic reaction?
An exothermic reaction is one which which gives out energy to the surroundings, usually in the form of heat and usually shown by a rise in temperature
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Give three examples of exothermic reactions
Burning fuels, neutralisation reactions and oxidation reactions
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What does the pH scale show?
They show how acidic or alkaline a solution is
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What type of ions are always present in acids?
H+ ions
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What type of ions are always present in alkalis?
OH- ions
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What is neutralisation?
It is the reaction between acids and bases
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What is the state symbol that means 'dissolved in water'?
(aq)
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What is the general equation for reacting an acid with a metal?
acid + metal -> salt + hydrogen
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Name a metal that doesn't react at all with dilute acids
Copper
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What type of salts does hydrochloric acid produce?
Chloride salts
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Give a practical use of precipitation reactions
They can be used to remove poisonous ions from drinking water
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What is electrolysis?
It is when you pass an electric current through an ionic substance that's molten or in solution, and it breaks down into the elements it's made of
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Explain why only liquids can be electrolysed
Liquids contain free ions which conduct the electricity and allow the whole thing to work
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Give one industrial use of sodium hydroxide
To make soap
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Give two uses of chlorine in industry
In the production of bleach and plastics
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Why is cryolite used during the electrolysis of aluminium oxide?
It is used to lower the temperature and costs
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Give two different uses of electroplating
For decoration and conduction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name three ways of measuring the rate of reaction

Back

Precipitation reaction, measure the change in mass, or measure the volume of gas given off

Card 3

Front

Explain how using a higher temperature increases the frequency of successful collisions between particles

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is activation energy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

List two advantages of using catalysts in industrial processes

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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