Revision for Biology 3a

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Give an example of a particle can't pass through a partially permeable membrane
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How does CO2 get into the cells of a leaf?
It diffuses through stomata
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Name the main substances that diffuse out of leaves
Oxygen and water vapour
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In what conditions does evaporation of water from leaves happen most quickly in?
Hot, dry and windy
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Define ventilation
The movement of air in and out of the lungs
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Give the four ways that the alveoli's structure is ideal for gas exchange
1. Enormous surface area 2. Moist lining for dissolving gases 3. Very thin walls 4. Good blood supply
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What are root hair cells specialised to do?
Absorb water and minerals
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Give the two main differences between active transport and diffusion
1. Active transport requires energy and diffusion doesn't 2. Active transport works against a concentration gradient and diffusion works along a concentration gradient
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What do phloem tubes do?
Transport food substances made in the leaves to growing regions and storage organs of the plant
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What do xylem tubes do?
Carry water and minerals from the roots to the stem and leaves
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What is the transpiration stream?
The flow of water through a plant, from the roots to the leaves, via the xylem vessels
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Why is our circulatory system called a double circulation system?
Blood flows to and returns from the lungs in the first pump, and the second one pumps blood all around the rest of the body
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What do the atria do in the heart?
They contract, pushing the blood into the ventricles
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What do the ventricles do?
They contract, forcing the blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta, and out of the heart
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Why do arteries need very muscular, elastic walls?
To allow them to stretch and not break under the high pressure of the blood flowing through them
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How are capillaries adapted to their function?
They have very thin walls (only one cell thick), which increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distance at which it occurs
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What the substance in red blood cells called?
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What is this substance called when it combines with oxygen?
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What are platelets and what do they do?
They are small fragments of cells that help blood to clot
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Why is it important that blood can clot?
To stop you bleeding out and to stop microorganisms getting in
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Explain how artificial blood products can help keep people alive
It replaces a lost volume of blood (e.g. in an accident), and gives someone enough time to produce more blood cells so that they don't die
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Name a part of the heart that can be replaced with artificial parts
Heart valves
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State one potential complication for using artificial parts in the heart
Problems with blood clots
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What are stents and what do they do?
They are tubes that are inserted inside arteries. They keep them open, making sure that blood can pass through to the heart muscles
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Define homeostasis
Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment
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Name the four things that the body needs to keep fairly constant
1. Body temperature 2. Water content 3. Ion content 4. Blood sugar levels
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Where in the body is urea produced?
The liver
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What are the three ways that water can be lost from the body?
1. In urine 2. In sweat 3. In the air we breathe out
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Explain why your urine is likely to be more concentrated on a hot day
On a hot day, you sweat a lot, so you'll produce less urine which will be more concentrated
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Give two ways in which kidney failure can be treated
1. Kidney transplant 2. Kidney dialysis machine
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Describe what happens when blood glucose level is too high
Insulin in secreted by the pancreas, which makes the liver turn glucose into glycogen
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Give two ways in which type 1 diabetes can be controlled
1. Avoiding foods rich in simple carbohydrates 2. Injecting insulin into the blood at mealtimes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How does CO2 get into the cells of a leaf?


It diffuses through stomata

Card 3


Name the main substances that diffuse out of leaves


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


In what conditions does evaporation of water from leaves happen most quickly in?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define ventilation


Preview of the front of card 5
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