Revision for Biology 2b

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State four functions of proteins in living cells
1. Can be used a catalysts 2. Acts as structural components of tissues 3. Act as hormones 3. Act as antibodies
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What happens to enzymes if they are exposed to too much heat?
They denature
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In which three places in the body is amylase produced?
Salivary glands, pancreas and small intestine
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Where in the body is bile produced?
Liver
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Where in the body is bile stored?
Gall bladder
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Where in the body is bile used?
Small intestine
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Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid?
To kill bacteria and to give the right pH for protease to work
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What is the equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy
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What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose -> energy + lactic acid
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Give two examples of how an animal uses the energy released by aerobic respiration
1. To allow muscles to contract 2. To build up larger molecules from smaller ones (e.g. proteins from amino acids)
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Explain how you repay an oxygen debt
You have to keep breathing hard for a while after you stop exercising to get more oxygen into your blood
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Give two kinds of enzyme that would be useful in a biological detergent
Protease and lipase
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Give two advantages of using enzymes in industry
1. They are biodegradable, so they cause less environmental pollution 2. Using lower temperatures and pressures means a lower cost as it saves energy
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Give two disadvantages of using enzymes in industry
1. Some people can develop allergies to the enzymes 2. They can be expensive to produce
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Explain how DNA fingerprinting is used in forensic science
DNA taken from a crime scene is compared with a DNA sample taken from a suspect
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What is mitosis used for in the human body?
To grow or replace cells that have been damaged
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Name the other type of cell division that isn't mitosis
Meiosis
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Which chromosome in the human body causes male characteristics?
Y chromosome
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Who reached important conclusions about heredity in plants?
Mendel
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What does heterozygous mean?
When an organism has two alleles for a particular gene that are different
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What does homozygous mean?
When an organism has two alleles for a particular gene that are the same
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What is a phenotype?
A visible characteristic defined by a gene (e.g. eye colour)
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What is a genotype?
The alleles that you have that determines a trait (e.g. bB for blue eyes)
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Name the three ways that a fossil can form
1. From gradual replacement by minerals 2. From casts and impressions 3. From preservation in places where no decay happens (e.g. in amber)
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Give three ways that a species can become extinct
1. A new disease kills them all 2. The environment changes too quickly 3. A new predator kills them all (e.g. humans)
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What is speciation?
The development of a new species
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens to enzymes if they are exposed to too much heat?

Back

They denature

Card 3

Front

In which three places in the body is amylase produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where in the body is bile produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where in the body is bile stored?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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