Revision for Biology 1a

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Name all the food groups you should eat to have a balanced diet
Carbohydrates, fats, protein and fibre (+ vitamins and mineral ions)
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What is metabolic rate?
The speed at which chemical reactions in the body take place
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What kind of diseases are caused from a lack of certain vitamins or minerals?
Deficiency diseases
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What does it mean is a person is malnourished?
It means that their diet is badly out of balance
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Name the three bodily defences that stop microorganisms getting inside the body
Skin, hairs and mucus
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What are the three stages that happen when a white blood cell comes across a foreign microbe?
1. Consuming them 2. Producing antibodies 3. Producing antitoxins
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Which three diseases is the MMR vaccine used to protect children from?
Measles, mumps and rubella
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Name one type of bacteria that has developed resistance to antibiotics
MRSA
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What practice did Semmelweis introduce in the 1840s?
Washing hands
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Explain why this reduced death rates in his wards
The antiseptic solution killed bacteria on the doctors' hands, so it reduced the spread of diseases
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Why is is hard to develop effective vaccines against viruses?
They mutate often, so the change in DNA can lead to them having different antigens
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Describe how the CNS controls the body
It consists of the brain and spinal cord only. Neurones transmit information as electrical impulses to effectors which response accordingly
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What is a stimulus?
A change in the external environment that can be detected (e.g. light, sound, temperature, etc.)
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Which two types of receptors do ears contain?
Sound and balance
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What is a synapse?
It is the connection between two neurons
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What is the order of a reflex arc?
Stimulus -> Receptor -> Sensory neurone -> Spinal Cord -> Relay neurone -> Motor neurone -> Effector -> Response
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Define 'hormone'
Hormones are chemical messages which travel in the blood to activate target cells
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Describe the four stages of the menstrual cycle
1. Day 1 is when bleeding starts 2. Lining of uterus builds up again from day 4 to 14 3. Egg is developed and released at day 14 4. Wall is maintained from day 14 to 28
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Describe two effects of FSH on the body
1. It causes an egg to mature in one of the ovaries 2. It stimulates the ovaries to produce oestrogen
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Briefly describe how IVF is carried out
Eggs are collected from a woman's ovaries and are fertilised in a lab using the man's sperm. These are then grown into embryos and one or two are transferred to the woman's uterus
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What is auxin?
It is a plant hormone that controls growth near the tips of shoots and roots
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Explain how auxin causes plant shoots to grow towards the light
When a shoot tip is exposed to light, more auxin accumulates on the shaded side. This makes the cells grow faster on the shaded side, the plant shoot bends towards the light
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Describe how the amount and concentration of urine you produce changes on a cold day
On a cold day you don't sweat as much, so you'll produce more urine which will be more dilated
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What effect do stimulants have on the body?
Increase heart rate
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Name the three main stages in drug trials
1. Human cells and tissues 2. Live animals 3. Clinical trial (human volunteers)
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Card 2

Front

What is metabolic rate?

Back

The speed at which chemical reactions in the body take place

Card 3

Front

What kind of diseases are caused from a lack of certain vitamins or minerals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does it mean is a person is malnourished?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the three bodily defences that stop microorganisms getting inside the body

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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