Respiration (unit 4)

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Give a basic overview of Glycolysis
The splitting of the 6-carbon glucose molecule into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules
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Give a basic overview of the Link Reaction
The conversion of the 3-carbon pyruvate molecule into CO2 and a 2-carbone molecule- acetylcoenzyme A
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Give a basic overview of the Krebs Cycle
The introcuction of acetylecoenzyme A into a cycle of redox reactions that yield some ATP and a large number of electrons
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Give a basic overview of the electron transport chain
The use of electrons produced in the Krebs cycle to synthesise ATP with water produced as a by-product
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Where does Glycolysis take place and why?
Occurs in the cytoplasm because glucose is too big a molecule to pass through the membrane of the mitochondria
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What is the overall yield from one glucose molecule undergoing glycolysis?
2x molecules of ATP, 2x molecules of reduced NAD, 2x molecules of pyruvate
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For each molecule of pyruvate, what does the link reaction?
1xAcetyl Coenzyme A, 1xCO2, 1xReduced NAD
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What is the overall yield from one glucose molecule in the link reaction?
2xAcetyl Coenzyme A, 2xCO2, 2xReduced NAD
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What is the overall yield from one glucose molecule in the Krebs Cycle? (2 turns of the cycle)
4xCO2, 2xATP, 6xReduced NAD, 2xReduced FAD
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What 4 reasons make the Krebs cycle so significant?
1.Breaks down Macro molecules (pyruvate into CO2) 2.Produces hydrogen atoms which are used in the electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation which leads to production of ATP 3.Regenerates 4-carbon molecule 4.Immediate source of compounds
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Where does the Link reaction and Krebs cycle take place?
The matrix of the mitochondria
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Where goes the electron transport chain take place?
The christae of the mitochondria
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What would happen is oxygen wasn't there as the final acceptor?
The hydrogens ions and electrons would 'back up' along the chain causing the process of respiration to come to a halt.
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What is the affect of cyanide in respiration?
It is non-competitive inhibitor of the final enzyme in the electron transport chain which catalyses the addition of hydrogen ions and electrons to oxygen to make water
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What two processes cannot take place in anaerobic respiration
The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
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What must be done in anarobic respiration in order for glycolysis to continue
It's products pyruvate and hydrogen must constantly be removed
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Why must NAD be regenerated?
So that it can accept hydrogens again from triose phosphate
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How is ethanol produced in plants and some microorganisms?
The pyruvate molecule loses a molecule of CO2 and accepts hydrogen from reduced NAD to produce ethanol
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How is lactate produced in animals?
Each pyruvate molecule take s up two hydrogen atoms from reduced NAD to form lactate
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Why must lactate be removed?
It causes cramp and muscle fatigue
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What are the two ways energy is derived from cellular respirtaion?
1.Substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis and the krebs cycle 2.Oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain
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Card 2

Front

Give a basic overview of the Link Reaction

Back

The conversion of the 3-carbon pyruvate molecule into CO2 and a 2-carbone molecule- acetylcoenzyme A

Card 3

Front

Give a basic overview of the Krebs Cycle

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give a basic overview of the electron transport chain

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where does Glycolysis take place and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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