Respiratory System

What is the pathway of air?
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchus, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
1 of 25
What is the epiglottis?
a flap of cartilage behind the root of the tongue
2 of 25
Where are the intercostal muscles located and what is their role?
in between the ribs & they help with inhalation and exhalation, they extend and contract
3 of 25
What do internal intercostal muscles do?
they draw the ribs downwards and inwards, decreasing the volume of the chest cavity and force air out of the lungs when we breath out
4 of 25
What do external intercostal muscles do?
they pull the ribs upwards and outwards, increasing the volume of the chest cavity and they draw air into the lungs when we breathe
5 of 25
What happens during inspiration?
the intercostal muscles contract and move the rib cage upwards and outwards at this time the diaphragm contracts which results in it becoming a flat shape. this results in the pressure being lower inside the lungs this moves air inside the lungs.
6 of 25
What happens during expiration?
the intercostal muscles relax and move the rib cage down and inwards, at this time the diaphragm relaxes and becomes a dome shape. this results in the pressure being higher inside the lungs, forcing air out of the lungs.
7 of 25
What is gaseous exchange?
the process when one gas is exchanged to another through the process of diffusion. it occurs in the alveoli and blood in the capillaries surrounding their walls. it delivers oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream and removes CO2 from the bloodstrem
8 of 25
When diffusion what concentration does the gases go from?
high to low
9 of 25
What is vital capacity?
the maximum air that can be exhaled after maximal inhalation (approx 4.8l)
10 of 25
What is tidal volume?
the amount of air breathed in and out with each normal breath (approx 0.5l)
11 of 25
What is residual volume?
that amount of air that remains in a person's lungs after fully exhaling (approx 1.2l)
12 of 25
What is total lung volume?
the total amount of air that the lungs can hold after the maximal inhalation (approx 6l)
13 of 25
What is minute ventilation? (pulmonary ventilation VE)
the total volume of air entering and exiting the lungs in a minute
14 of 25
What is neural control of breathing?
breathing is under involuntary control. inspiration is an active process, as the diaphragm muscles actively contract, which causes air to enter the lungs. this is controlled by neurons in the brain stem.
15 of 25
What is neural control of breathing? (carried on)
neurons in two areas of the medulla oblongata are critical in respiration.
16 of 25
What are the two parts of the medulla oblongata called and what is they responsible for?
dorsal and ventral respiratory groups. they are responsible for the rhythm generation that allows rhythmic and continuous breathing.
17 of 25
What is chemical control of breathing?
chemoreceptors respond to chemical fluctuations, these are found in the medulla in the aortic arch & carotid arteries. the chemoreceptors detect changes in the blood CO2 levels and blood acidity. send signals to the medulla to change breathing rate
18 of 25
What are the long term effects of exercise?
increased vital capacity, increased O2 and CO2 diffusion rate & increased strength to the respiratory muscles
19 of 25
What are the short term effects of exercise?
increased tidal volume & increased breathing rate
20 of 25
What is asthma?
a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways
21 of 25
How does asthma affect a performer?
the performer cannot inhale and exhale effectivly. this is because they cannot send oxygen to the working muscles, causing quick fatigue. they can not inspire and expire which is vital
22 of 25
What happens to the body when training at altitude?
oxygen particles are more spread out which forces the body to work on limited oxygen making their blood and muscles to work harder
23 of 25
What are the short term effects of training at altitude?
dizziness, headaches & shortness of breath
24 of 25
What are the long term effects of training at altitude?
our lungs adapt by becoming larher so they can tae in more oxygen. the body also produce more red blood cells and capillaries
25 of 25

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the epiglottis?

Back

a flap of cartilage behind the root of the tongue

Card 3

Front

Where are the intercostal muscles located and what is their role?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do internal intercostal muscles do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do external intercostal muscles do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Anatomy & physiology resources »