Respiration Quiz

What is the definition of tidal volume?
The volume of gas inspired at rest or expired in a unforced respiratory cycle.
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What does the conducting zone consist of?
The primary bronchi, the larynx, the terminal bronchioles.
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Forced (deep) inspiration occurs with the contraction of the...
Scalenes
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A measure of the dispensability of the lungs is known as...
Compliance
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What phospholipid decreases the surface tension of the alveoli?
Surfactant
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Cessation of breathing is known as...
Apnea.
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What is (are) the chief muscle (s) of ventilation?
Diaphragm.
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Name two important factors that play roles in ventilation?
Resistance within the airways and lung compliance.
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Histamine will..........bronchioles-->........ resistance--> .......airflow.
constrict, increase, decrease
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Epinephrine will....... bronchioles-->........ resistance--> .......airflow.
dilate, decrease, decrease
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Acetylcholine will....... bronchioles-->........ resistance--> .......airflow.
constrict, increase, decrease
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Fibrosis will......... compliance making it harder to inflate the lungs.
Decrease
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A.... in surfactant will result in a...... in compliance.
Decrease, decrease
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What can be used to treat carbon monoxide poisoning and gangrene?
Hyberbaric Oxygen Therapy
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The amount of a given gas dissolved in blood is...
Directly proportional to the solubility of the gas
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Carbon monoxide is lethal because it..
Binds haemoglobin preventing oxygen binding.
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What three regions is the pharynx divided into?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngophrarynx.
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Oxygen transport in the blood is...
98.5% bound to haemoglobin, 1.5% dissolves in plasma
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What is the primary bronchi?
Trachea
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Efficient external respiration depends on three main factors, these are..
Surface area and structure of the respiratory membrane, partial pressure gradient, matching alveolar air flow to pulmonary capillary blood flow.
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What is hypoxia?
Inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues.
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What pressure is always negative and helps to keep lungs inflated?
Intrapleural pressure
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Intrapleural pressure is mostly negative during which respiratory process?
Inspiration
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Does intrapulmonary pressure increase or decrease during inspiration?
Decrease
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When airflow is restricted so that the partial pressure of oxygen is low and carbon dioxide is high, what happens to arterioles?
Vasoconstriction
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When airflow is restricted so that the partial pressure of oxygen is low and carbon dioxide is high, what happens to the bronchioles?
Dilation
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If transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lungs?
Lung collapse
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A collapse of the lungs is also known as...
Pneumothorax
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Why does more carbon dioxide than oxygen dissolve in liquid when both gases are the same pressure?
Carbon dioxide is a lot more soluble than oxygen.
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What law states that the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid
Henrys Law
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Which muscles control inspiration?
Diaphragm, external intercostals
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Internal respiration depends on which three factors?
Available surface area, partial pressure gradients, variable rate of blood flow varies.
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Three factors that cause the partial pressures of gases in the alveoli to differ from pressures in the atmosphere?
Humidification of air, gas exchange between alveoli and capillaries, mixture of old and new air.
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When the bronchiole constricts, will resistance increase or decrease?
Increase
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When the bronchiole constricts, will airflow increase or decrease?
Decrease
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Which muscles control expiration?
Internal intercostals, external oblique and rectus abdominus
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What is the definition of dyspnoea?
Describes a subjective difficulty or distress in breathing.
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What is the definition of total lung capacity?
This is the vital lung capacity plus the residual volume and is the total amount of air lungs can hold.
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What is the definition of residual volume?
The amount of air left in the lungs following a maximal exhalation.
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What is the definition of vital capacity?
The most air you can exhale after taking the deepest breath you can.
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What is the definition of inspiratory reserve volume?
The amount of extra air inhaled during a deep breath.
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What is the definition of expiratory reserve volume?
The amount of extra air exhaled during a forceful breath out.
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What four distinct processes must happen for respiration to occur?
Pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport, internal respiration
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Which diseases reduce compliance?
Tuberculosis, pulmonary edema, COPD
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What is a typical minute ventilation value?
6000ml/min
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What is eupnea?
Normal breathing rate
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What is lung compliance?
How easily the lungs and chest wall can expand or contract.
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What is pulmonary ventilation?
air moves into lungs when pressure inside lungs is less than atmospheric pressure, air moves out of lungs when pressure inside lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure
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What is atmospheric pressure?
The pressure exerted by the gases that make up the air that surrounds the earth
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Is inspiration at rest an active or passive process?
Active
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What is the role of intrapleural pressure?
Negative intrapleural pressure acts a suction, so the outer part of the lung lobe tissue is stuck to the back of ribs and connective tissue and diaphragm moves down, lung tissue goes with it
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What is quiet inspiration?
Active process that requires muscle action where thorax volume increases and lungs expand
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What pressure change occurs during quiet inspiration?
Alveolar pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure and air moves into alveoli
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What pressure change occurs during quiet expiration?
Alveolar pressure increases above atmospheric pressure and air is pushed out
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What is alveolar tension caused by?
- water molecules are strongly attracted to each other and cause alveoli to want to collapse, needs to be overcome for inhalation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does the conducting zone consist of?

Back

The primary bronchi, the larynx, the terminal bronchioles.

Card 3

Front

Forced (deep) inspiration occurs with the contraction of the...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

A measure of the dispensability of the lungs is known as...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What phospholipid decreases the surface tension of the alveoli?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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