Respiration

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Why is glucose not used as the respiratory substance in mitochondria?
glucose cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane, it is broken down into pyruvate in the cytoplasm during glycolysis.
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Why would the uptake of oxygen decrease if the Kreb's cycle was inhibited?
There would be less NADH, hydrogen aren't passed to the electron transport chain. Oxygen is used as the final acceptor in the electron transport chain so less oxygen is needed.
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Why is ATP useful in many biological processes?
It releases energy in small amounts, is broken down in one step, it makes energy available rapidly, makes phosphorylated substances more reactive, it is reformed.
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How is ATP made in the mitochondria?
ATP is produced in the Kreb's cycle, Kreb's cycle and link reaction release NADH, electrons are released from NADH, electrons pass along electron transport chain releasing energy, a proton gradient is formed, ATP synthase makes ATP from ADP and Pi.
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Why is it necessary for human to synthesis a large amount of ATP?
It cannot be stored, it is unstable, it can only release a small amount of energy at a time.
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Why do muscles become fatigued when insufficient oxygen is available?
There is an increase in concentration of lactate, the pH is lowered.
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What happens to pyruvate in anaerobic conditions and why is anaerobic respiration advantageous to human skeletal muscles?
Pyruvate is converted into lactate oxidising NADH into NAD, NAD can be re-used so glycolysis can continue and energy is still released when oxygen is in short supply.
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Why is it advantageous for a runner to keep breathing rapidly for some time after a race?
Lactic acid is built up, oxygen is used to break down lactic acid into pyruvate
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Why do mitochondria in muscle cells have more cristae than mitochondria in skin cells?
There is a larger surface area for the electron transport chain so more ATP is produced as muscle cells use more ATP.
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Card 2

Front

Why would the uptake of oxygen decrease if the Kreb's cycle was inhibited?

Back

There would be less NADH, hydrogen aren't passed to the electron transport chain. Oxygen is used as the final acceptor in the electron transport chain so less oxygen is needed.

Card 3

Front

Why is ATP useful in many biological processes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is ATP made in the mitochondria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is it necessary for human to synthesis a large amount of ATP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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