Research Methods Revision Cards

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  • Created by: Kaveiya
  • Created on: 04-02-14 21:11
Aim
The aim of an investigation is its general purpose.
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Hypothesis
The hypothesis is a precise, testable statement or prediction about the expected outcome of an investigation.
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Validity
Does a test measure what it was designed to measure?
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Ecological Validity
The extent to which generalization can be made from the test environment to other situations.
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Random Sampling
Everyone in the entire target population has an equal chance of being selected.
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Opportunity Sampling
Uses people from target population available at the time.
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Systematic Sampling
Chooses subjects in a systematic way. For example, every 10th person from a list or register.
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Stratified Sampling
Divides target population into groups, people in sample from each group in same proportions as population. So you would have a higher number of people between the ages of 20-30 than 70-80.
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Researcher Effects
Researcher can affect the behaviour of the participants, thus affecting the results of the study.
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Disguise the purpose of the investigation
There is some deception in many psychological studies to stop participants guessing the aims and changing their behaviour. Participants in Milgram's obedience studies thought it was a study on effects of punishment on learning and memory.
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Independent Variable (IV)
Variable the experimenter manipulates - assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable.
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Dependent Variable (DV)
Variable the experimenter measures, after making changes to the IV which are assumed to affect the DV.
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Extraneous Variables (Ex Vs)
Other variables, apart from the IV, that might affect the DV. They might be important enough to provide alternative explanations for the effects, for example, confounding variables.
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Laboratory Experiment
Artificial environment with tight controls over variables.
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Field Experiment
Natural environment with independent variable manipulated by researchers.
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Natural Experiment
Natural changes in independent variable are used - it is not manipulated.
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Independent Groups
Testing separate groups of people, each group is tested in a different condition.
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Repeated Measures
Testing the same group of people in different conditions, the same people are used repeatedly.
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Matched Pairs
Testing separate groups of people - each member of one group is same age, sex, or social background as a member of the other group.
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Counterbalancing
Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment. For example, group 1 does 'A' then 'B', group 2 does 'B' then 'A' this is to eliminate order effects.
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Randomisation
Material for each condition in an experiment is presented in a random order, this is also to prevent order effects.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The hypothesis is a precise, testable statement or prediction about the expected outcome of an investigation.

Back

Hypothesis

Card 3

Front

Does a test measure what it was designed to measure?

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The extent to which generalization can be made from the test environment to other situations.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Everyone in the entire target population has an equal chance of being selected.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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