Research Methods Retake

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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 11-05-15 11:21
Define demand characteristics
A cue that makes pts aware of how they're expected to behave, thus changing their behaviour
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Define investigator effects
Anything the experimenter does that has an effect on the pt's performance
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Define pt variables
Differences in pts in terms of ability, motivation etc
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Define presumptive consent
Asking a group of people who are similar to the pts whether they'd agree to take part in a study
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What is a pilot study?
A small-scale study conducted to discover any errors for the large-scale study
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Define social desirability
A tendency for respondents to ans qs in a way that'll present them in a better light
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What are the 7 ethical issues in psych?
Consent, protection from harm, deception, withdrawal, confidentiality, give advice and debrief
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What is quantative data? Example?
Data in the form of numbers - structured questionnaires and interviews
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What are the strengths/weaknesses of quantative data?
Strength - analysed more easily. Weakness - pts are treated as identical sources of info, so individual differences are ignored
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What is qualitative data? Example?
Descriptive data that's rich in info - open-ended questionnaires and unstructured interviews
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What are the strenghths/weaknesses of qualitative data?
Strength - naturalistic research. Weaknesses - theories tend to emerge, rather than being constructed beforehand, difficult to analyse, subjective bias
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What is an IV and a DV?
IV - the variable the experimenter manipulates/controls. DV - the variable the experimenter measures
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Give an example of a directional hypothesis
There will be a significant increase/decrease in exam grade when doing 3 hrs of revision a day, compared to 1 hr a day
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Give an example of a non-directional hypothesis
Drinking 3 cups of coffee will significantly affect concentration levels
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Strengths/weaknesses of lab experiments?
Strengths - control extraneous variables, replicability, manipulation of IV. Weaknesses - lack of eco validity, demand characteristics, investigator fx
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Strengths/weaknesses of natural experiments?
Strengths - v high eco validity, no demand characteristics. Weaknesses - no control, lots of extraneous variables, ethics
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3 observational techniques?
Naturalistic, controlled and participant
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Strengths/weaknesses of random sampling?
Strength - un-bias, as everyone has an equal chance of being selected. Weakness - may end up w/ bias sample due to already selecting target ppl
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Strengths/weaknesses of independent groups?
Strengths - no order fx, low demand characteristics. Weaknesses - expensive, 1 piece of data per pt, subject variables
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State the correlation coefficients of +0.8, 0.6, 0.4 and -0.2
Very strong positive, fairly strong positive, fairly weak negative, very weak negative
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What's the difference between a closed/open-ended questionnaire?
Closed - respondents have to select their ans from a no of choices. Open-ended - the respondent can ans in whatever way they like
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What's the difference between a structured/unstructured interview?
Structured - pre-list of qs that are read out to the respondent by an interviewer. Unstructured - qs aren't pre-set and the direction of the interview isn't pre-determined
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Disadvantages of case studies?
Can't generalise findings, difficult to replicate, unreliable (relying on a person's recollections)
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What is nominal/ordinal/ interval data?
Nominal - simplest level of data, sep cats. Ordinal - data ranked according to its position on a scale, order. Interval - data placed on a scale w/ fixed intervals to see how far apart they are
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Card 2


Define investigator effects


Anything the experimenter does that has an effect on the pt's performance

Card 3


Define pt variables


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Card 4


Define presumptive consent


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Card 5


What is a pilot study?


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