Research Methods PY2 Flashcards

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  • Created by: bananaaar
  • Created on: 14-04-14 12:11
Correlation advantage?
Enables one to test the direction and strength if a relationship between 2 variables
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Correlation disadvantage?
Is not causal - you cannot say that one variable causes the other, only that they are related in some way.
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Questionnaire advantage?
Usually high in reliability as questionnaires are structured and can easily be repeated.
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Questionnaire disadvantage?
Can be low in validity as pps can lie in a questionnaire.
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Lab experiment advantage?
High in reliability as it is carried out in controlled lab environment.
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Lab experiment disadvantage?
Low in extrenal validity as the setting and tasks are artificial so do not paint a true picture of real life.
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Field experiment advantage?
Higher in validity than a lab experiment as it is conducted in a real life setting.
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Field experiment disadvantage?
Lower in reliability than a lab experiment as there is less control over confounding variables.
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Natural experiment advantage?
High in validity as it is conducted in a real life setting and thus paints a true picture of real life behaviour.
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Natural experiment disadvantage?
Low in reliability as there is no control over confounding variables.
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Observation advantage?
High in validity as watching pps in their natural environment should paint a true picture of real life behaviour.
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Observation disadvantage?
Low in reliability as there is no control over confounding variables.
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Interview advantage?
High in validity as pps are less likely to lie in a face-to-face research method.
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Interview disadvantage?
Low in reliability because of interviewer bias (either by questioning or analysis of results)
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Case study advantage?
Usually high in validity as it enables the researcher to study the single pp in depth and detail, revealing a true picture of individual behaviour (ideographic).
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Case study disadvantage?
Makes it difficult to generalise findings of the study to other people as there is only 1 pp.
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Content analysis advantage?
Useful because these methods simplify complex behaviour into groupings, allowing patterns and trends to emerge.
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Content analysis disadvantage?
Researcher bias can be a problem as researchers can misinterpret the meaning of the data.
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Advantage of self-selecting (volunteer) sample?
Very quick and easy compared to other sampling methods as you can just put an advertisement in the paper, or on a noticeboard and wait for people to respond.
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Disadvantages of self-selecting (volunteer) sample?
Could be affected by bias, as the type of people who volunteer do not tend to be representative of the whole population.
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Advantage of opportunity sample?
Very quick and easy compared to other sampling methods as you just pick people who are availiable at your convenience and there is no need to know details about each person first.
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Disadvantage of opportunity sample?
Could be affected by bias, so the resutls may not be representative of all people.
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Advantage of quota sampling?
Tends to be more representative than opportunist sampling as you divide people into sub groups first so one can generalise the results.
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Disadvantage of quota sampling?
Relatively slow and complicated because you have to divide all the people up into groups before choosing the sample, and the results may still be affected by bias.
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Advantage of random sampling?
Tends to be representative as each pp has an equal chance of being selected, so you can generalise the results.
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Disadvantage of random sampling?
Could be affected by bias, by chance, as accidentally the random sample might pick similar types of people.
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Advantage of stratified sample?
Tends to be representative of all people as you divide people into subgroups first, then pick randomly from each subgroup.
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Disadvantage stratified sampling?
Relatively slow and complicated because you have to divide all the people up into groups before choosing the sample.
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Advantage of systematic sampling?
Avoids researcher bias as you just pick every nth person on a list or register so the researcher does not influence the pps chosen.
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Disadvantage of systematic sampling?
Could still be affected by bias as not everyone on the list had equal chance of being in the sample.
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Potential problems with reliability?
Problem with measuring tool or lack of standardised procedure.
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Potential problems with validity?
Problems with external validity or population validity.
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Potential problems with ethics?
Lack of confidentiality, potential psychological harm, deception etc.
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How to deal with validity issues?
If lying make confidential/anonymous etc. Population validity - different sample etc?
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How to deal with ethics issues?
psychological harm - debrief pps or let pps withdraw any time. Deception/consent - debrief at end but ask if they can use results OR advanced general prior consent. confidentiality - provide anonymity or privacy of results.
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What must you do with ALL research methods questions?
Link to scenario and use examples. Give pps a nickname and give study a nickname.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Correlation disadvantage?

Back

Is not causal - you cannot say that one variable causes the other, only that they are related in some way.

Card 3

Front

Questionnaire advantage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Questionnaire disadvantage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Lab experiment advantage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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