Research Methods, meanings.

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Validity
Validity is the term representation of something measureing what it's meant to be measuring.
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Advantages of Scientific Method
Falsifiable (Manipulates varaibles under controlled condiitions), Control, Replication (Standarised procedures) Objective (Not affected my expecations of researcher).
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Objective
Delgado: Used the double blind technique where participants weren't aware whether they were on a high tryptophan diet, or a low.
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Replication
Milgrims study of obediance, done at a University and then repeated in a run down office block, change down to authoroity.
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Falsifiable
Pavlows dog experiment, he was able to manipulate variables such as timing of bell and production of food, prove classical condition therory, behaviour is learnt through association.
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Control
Gibson and Walk: Visual cliff experiment high is levels of controland procedure throughout was kept the same, IV affected DV and not other extraneaous variables.
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'Agression' was operationalised
Being able to define measurements of aggression.
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A confoudning variables
Will have an affect on variables within a study, where as extraneous variables might have an impact on the study.
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Ensuring validity
Indentifying content or concurrent validity.
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Ethical Issues
Right to Withdraw, Confidentiality, Informed consent, Deception, Psychological/Psychical harm.
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Informed consent
Research must make sure that all participants have agreed to partake in the study after experimenter gives some input on the experiment and what it's about.
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Deception
Lying to participants about true aims of the study, because it will often be the case that is participants know the true aims the reasearch will not get effective results.
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Right to Withdraw
Milgrim - Inform participants they can leave the study whenever they want.
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Confidentiality
The study should remain between reasearched and participant (Don't give away names, etc)
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Physical/Psychological harm.
Milgrim caused seizures.
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Mode, Median, Mean
Mode (Most common) Median (Middle Value) and Mean (Takes everything into account).
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Advantage/Disadvantage of Medium
A: Not concempted to outliars (EXPLAIN) D: Not a comprehensive measure - Doesn't consider all numbers.
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Dependant Variable
The dependant variable is the factor measures in the experiement.
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Correlation Co-efficient
Correlations co-efficient is a mathematical measure showing the strengh of a relationship between two variables.
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Double Blind Technique
Controls experimenter bias and subject bias by preventing experiementer and subject from knowing what they've been assigned (Delgado)
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Ecological Validity
Must be reflective of real life.
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Reliability
Is the extent in which a test or experimentis consistant init measures.
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P
Is the probability of the results being down to chance in less than 5%
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Ordinal
Able to put it in rank order to state the value is higher than another
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Interval/Retro
Data is measured in fixed units with equal differance between points.
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Non Directional
THEREWILL BE A DIFFERANCE between (Subject 1) and (Subject 2)
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Directional
One will be better than the other 'X factor contestants will be more confident than big brother contestants.
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Null
No direction, there will be no change between (Subject 1) and (Subject 2)
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Enviromental factors
Hunger, etc. EXPLAIN.
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Disadvantage of Scientific Method
Investigator affects. Lacks EV, demand chracteristics, Conformity Bias, Ethics
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The Man Whitney Test
Usedin the study as hypothesispredicts a differance between two sets of data.
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Nominal
Nominal data are categorical data where the order of the categories is arbitrary
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Advantages of Scientific Method

Back

Falsifiable (Manipulates varaibles under controlled condiitions), Control, Replication (Standarised procedures) Objective (Not affected my expecations of researcher).

Card 3

Front

Objective

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Replication

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Falsifiable

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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