Research Methods, meanings.

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Validity is the term representation of something measureing what it's meant to be measuring.
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Advantages of Scientific Method
Falsifiable (Manipulates varaibles under controlled condiitions), Control, Replication (Standarised procedures) Objective (Not affected my expecations of researcher).
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Delgado: Used the double blind technique where participants weren't aware whether they were on a high tryptophan diet, or a low.
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Milgrims study of obediance, done at a University and then repeated in a run down office block, change down to authoroity.
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Pavlows dog experiment, he was able to manipulate variables such as timing of bell and production of food, prove classical condition therory, behaviour is learnt through association.
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Gibson and Walk: Visual cliff experiment high is levels of controland procedure throughout was kept the same, IV affected DV and not other extraneaous variables.
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'Agression' was operationalised
Being able to define measurements of aggression.
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A confoudning variables
Will have an affect on variables within a study, where as extraneous variables might have an impact on the study.
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Ensuring validity
Indentifying content or concurrent validity.
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Ethical Issues
Right to Withdraw, Confidentiality, Informed consent, Deception, Psychological/Psychical harm.
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Informed consent
Research must make sure that all participants have agreed to partake in the study after experimenter gives some input on the experiment and what it's about.
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Lying to participants about true aims of the study, because it will often be the case that is participants know the true aims the reasearch will not get effective results.
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Right to Withdraw
Milgrim - Inform participants they can leave the study whenever they want.
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The study should remain between reasearched and participant (Don't give away names, etc)
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Physical/Psychological harm.
Milgrim caused seizures.
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Mode, Median, Mean
Mode (Most common) Median (Middle Value) and Mean (Takes everything into account).
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Advantage/Disadvantage of Medium
A: Not concempted to outliars (EXPLAIN) D: Not a comprehensive measure - Doesn't consider all numbers.
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Dependant Variable
The dependant variable is the factor measures in the experiement.
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Correlation Co-efficient
Correlations co-efficient is a mathematical measure showing the strengh of a relationship between two variables.
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Double Blind Technique
Controls experimenter bias and subject bias by preventing experiementer and subject from knowing what they've been assigned (Delgado)
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Ecological Validity
Must be reflective of real life.
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Is the extent in which a test or experimentis consistant init measures.
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Is the probability of the results being down to chance in less than 5%
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Able to put it in rank order to state the value is higher than another
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Data is measured in fixed units with equal differance between points.
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Non Directional
THEREWILL BE A DIFFERANCE between (Subject 1) and (Subject 2)
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One will be better than the other 'X factor contestants will be more confident than big brother contestants.
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No direction, there will be no change between (Subject 1) and (Subject 2)
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Enviromental factors
Hunger, etc. EXPLAIN.
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Disadvantage of Scientific Method
Investigator affects. Lacks EV, demand chracteristics, Conformity Bias, Ethics
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The Man Whitney Test
Usedin the study as hypothesispredicts a differance between two sets of data.
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Nominal data are categorical data where the order of the categories is arbitrary
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Advantages of Scientific Method


Falsifiable (Manipulates varaibles under controlled condiitions), Control, Replication (Standarised procedures) Objective (Not affected my expecations of researcher).

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