Research Methods - Keywords

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  • Created by: _laurenb
  • Created on: 04-05-15 19:49
Qualititative Research
Focuses on a participant's thoughts and feelings about an experience; interviews
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Quantitative Research
Measures behaviour in a numerical way; memory test scoring out of 20
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Hypothesis
A testable statement, stating what will be testing and making a prediction about the relationship between the two variables
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Operationalisation
The precise definition of how variables will be used within a study
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Sample
The group of people used within a study
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Target Population
The group of interest that the sample is formed to represent
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Opportunity Sampling
Consists of accessible people available to take part in the study
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Random Sampling
Consists of people chosen at random
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Stratified Sampling
Consists of people chosen from subgroups made by the researcher
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Systematic Sampling
Consists of every nth person of the target population
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Independant Variable
Manipulated by the researcher
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Dependant Variable
Measured by the researcher
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Labatory Experiment
Conducted in a carefully controlled environment - not neccessarily a lab
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Field Experiment
Takes place in a natural environment
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Quasi-experiment
The independent variable occurs naturally; it is not manipulated by the researcher
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Extraneous Variable
A variable other than the independant variable that COULD affect the dependant variable if not controlled
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Confounding Variable
A variable other than the independant variable that DOES affect the dependant variable
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Participant Variable
The individual characterists of the participants affects their behaviour
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Situational Variable
The environment affects participant's behaviour
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Experimental Variable
The experimenter treats participants differently
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Experimental Design
The way that participants are used within a study
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Repeated Measures Design
Same participants are used in both conditions of a experiment
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Independant Groups Design
Different people take part in each condition & performance is compared
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Matched Pairs Design
Different people are used in each condition, but are matched in ways that compliment the experiment
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Order Effects
Partipants performance in 2nd condition is affected by having performed in the 1st
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Practice Effect
The participants perform better in the 2nd condition due to the practice they have from the 1st
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Fatigue Effect
Participants perform worse in the 2nd condition due to be bored or tired after performing in the 1st
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Counterbalancing
Half of the participants peform in condition A and then condition B; the other half perform in condition B and then condition A. Balances out the effects of order between the 2 conditions
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Self - Report Methods
Participant reports on their own behaviour & feelings; survey etc.
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Closed Questions
A fixed number of answers to a question is given to choose from
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Open Questions
A respondent can answer is any way they wish to
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Structured Interview
Interviewer has a prepared set of questions to ask in a fixed order
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Unstructured Interview
Interviewer begins with an aim and invites the interviewee to disuss a topic
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Correlation Study
Measures a relationshio between two variables
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Positive Correlation
As one variable increases, the other increases
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Negative Correlation
As one variable increases, the other decreases
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Zero Correlation
No relationship between the two variables
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Natural Observation
Involving subjects in their natural behaviour
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Controlled Observations
Carried out in carefully controlled conditions, where the behaviour would most likely not normally take place
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Participant Observation
Researcher takes part in the study
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Non-participant Observation
Researcher avoids involvement in the study
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Covert Observation
The observer's presence is not known
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Overt Observation
The observer's presence is known
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Observer Bias
The observer lets his expectations influence his observation of a behaviour
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Inter - Observer Reliability
Two researchers observe without conferring and record similar findings
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Continuous Recording
All instances of the target behaviour are recorded
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Time Sampling
Researcher splits observation into time intervals and takes samples of behaviour during this time
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Content Analysis
Directly observing the presence of certain words, images or concepts within the media
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Case Study
In-depth study of one individual or a small group
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Mean
Adding together the values and dividing the number of values
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Median
Ordering values from low to high and then selecting the middle value
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Mode
Choosing the most frequently occuring value
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Range
Measure of the difference between the lowest and highest value
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Standard Deviation
A measure of dispersion - the way values are spread out; either low or high
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Respect: Confidentiality
Data about participants collected in a study must be kept confidential
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Respect: Informed Consent
Participants consent whilst knowing the purpose of the study
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Respect: Deception
Participants must only ever be decieved about a certain aspect of the study when required to collect the data of the study
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Respect: Right to Withdraw
Participants can withdraw or have their data destroyed at any time
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Competence
Advice should only be given by the researcer when qualified to do so
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Responsibility: Protection from Harm
There should be no risk imposed to the participant's physical or mental health
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Responsibility: Debrief
Participants should be informed of the aims and nature of the research of the study
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Integrity: Honesty
Researchers should be honest and accurate throughout the stud
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Card 2

Front

Measures behaviour in a numerical way; memory test scoring out of 20

Back

Quantitative Research

Card 3

Front

A testable statement, stating what will be testing and making a prediction about the relationship between the two variables

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The precise definition of how variables will be used within a study

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The group of people used within a study

Back

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