Research Methods and Concepts

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Laboratory experiment
Controlled environment; tends to have: high internal validity - many extraneous variables controlled. However, some (i.e. experiments effects and demand characteristics) may reduce it. Also increases replicability, but reduces external validity
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Field experiment
More natural environment. More difficult to control extraneous variables. Experimenter effects reduced as participants not usually aware. Demand characteristics may still problematic - way IV operationalised may convey hypothesis
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Natural experiment
Makes use of existing IVs. Causal conclusions cannot be drawn. Participants cannot be randomly allocated to conditions so may reduce validity
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Experimental design
Repeated measures, matched pairs, or independent groups.
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Self-report methods
Questionnaires/interviews. Unstructured/structured. Problem: Honesty - social desirability bias. Open/closed questions
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Observational studies
Behavioural categories to record instances of behaviour / sampling methods - time sampling/event sampling. Problem: observer bias.
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Correlational analysis
Relationship between two variables. Does not demonstrate cause, but useful in identifying where relationship exists. Data may have other, unknown, intervening variables.
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Case studies
Detailed study of sing individual, institution or event. Generally longitudinal. Difficult to generalise.
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Content analysis
Assessing qualitative data and separating data into categories; turn it into quantitative data
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Pilot study
Small-scale trial run of research study to test any aspect of the design - make improvements to main study
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Hypothesis
Directional/non-directional. Good hypothesis should be operationalised so variables are in form that can easily be tested.
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Investigator/experimenter effects
May unwittingly communicate expectations, leading participants to act accordingly
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Demand characteristics
Features of experiment may cue participants to act in predictable ways
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Card 2

Front

More natural environment. More difficult to control extraneous variables. Experimenter effects reduced as participants not usually aware. Demand characteristics may still problematic - way IV operationalised may convey hypothesis

Back

Field experiment

Card 3

Front

Makes use of existing IVs. Causal conclusions cannot be drawn. Participants cannot be randomly allocated to conditions so may reduce validity

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Repeated measures, matched pairs, or independent groups.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Questionnaires/interviews. Unstructured/structured. Problem: Honesty - social desirability bias. Open/closed questions

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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