Research methods and concepts

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What is the ideal form of scientific investigation and why?
The lab experiment, because it enables us to maximise control and identify causal relationships.
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Outline 3 points that are common to all types of experiments.
They involve an IV and DV, the IV is vaired in order to see how this affects the DV, thus demonstrating a causal relationship, and all other variables are controlled, so any changes in the DV are due to the IV rather than extraneuos variables.
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What are they 3 types of experiment?
Lab, field and natural.
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Give 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses regarding a lab experiment.
They're conducted in a controlled environment which is high in internal validity because extraneous varibles can be controlled, however some may reduce it. Control increases replicability, but reduces external validity because it's less like everyday
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Outline the strenghts and weakness of a field experiment.
They're conducted in a natual environment. It may be possible to control extraneous variables, but this is more difficult than in a lab. Experimenter effects are reduced because participants aren't aware of being in a study, but demand characteristic
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Give 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses regarding natural experiments.
They make use of existing IVs; an experiment involves the manipulation of an IV so causual conclusions can't be drawn; participants aren't randomly allocated to conditions which may reduce validity, but it's the only way to study certain behaviours.
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What are the levels of IV that are used in experimental design?
Each participant is tested on all the IVs, there are seperate groups for each IV, or the participants in each group can be matched with participants in the other group on key variables.
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How would a psychologist use self-report methods?
They would use questionnaires and interviews to find out what people think and feel.
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Outline 3 facts regarding interviews in general, structured interviews and unstructured interviews.
They're real-time, face-to-face questionnaires; an unstructured interview is where the questions are developed as a response to the answers; structured ones can be repeated which is an advantage.
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Give 2 weaknesses of self-report methods.
Honesty, and they may involve open questions which can produce unexpected answers providing rich insights but they're more difficult to analyse.
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Outline and evaluate observational studies.
They involve watching what people do, but it's not simple because there's so much information to collect, so psychologists use behavioural categories and sampling methods even in naturalistic ones. They provide a rich picture, but they may be biased.
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Outline and evaluate correlational studies.
They're concerned with the relationship between 2 variables, but it doesn't demonstrate a cause, but is useful in identifying where relationships exist with large data, and can be easily replicated, however there may be other variables that can...
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Previous card continued.
explain why the co-variables are linked. They may lack internal/external validity.
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Outline the method of case studies.
It's a detailed study of an individual, institution or event. It uses information from a range of sources using many techniques. They're generally longitudinal so the complex interaction of many factors can be studied.
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Give 2 weaknesses of case studies.
They're difficult to generalise as each has unique characteristcs, and it's often necessary to use recollection of past events which may be unreliable.
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How is an aim and hypothesis formulated?
Researchers start by indentifying what they intend to study and make a statement of their expectations using a hypothesis which may be directional or non-directional. A good one should be operationalised so that the variables can be tested.
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Explain the term 'investigator effects'.
Investigators may communicate their expecations unwillingly to participants, thus leading them to fulfil the expectations.
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What is a pilot study?
It's a small scale trial of research to test aspects of the design to make improvements.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Outline 3 points that are common to all types of experiments.

Back

They involve an IV and DV, the IV is vaired in order to see how this affects the DV, thus demonstrating a causal relationship, and all other variables are controlled, so any changes in the DV are due to the IV rather than extraneuos variables.

Card 3

Front

What are they 3 types of experiment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give 2 strengths and 2 weaknesses regarding a lab experiment.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline the strenghts and weakness of a field experiment.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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