Research Methods Key Words

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  • Created by: issyricca
  • Created on: 22-03-15 09:44
hypothesis
a statement predicting the outcome of a research
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alternate hypothesis
a statement which predicts a difference or correlation in results
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null hypothesis
a statement which predicts no difference or correlation in results
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variable
anything that is open to change
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independent variable
something that the researcher changes or manipulates
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dependent variable
something the researcher measures to see if it has changed, after the independent variable has been manipulated
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extraneous variable
a variable, not the independent variable, that could affect the dependent variable if not controlled
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standardisation
a way of controlling extraneous variables; to keep variables the same across conditions
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experimental design
a way of allocating participants to conditions in an experiment
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repeated measures design
an experimental design in which participants take part in each condition
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independent groups design
an experimental design in which participants are different in each condition
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sample
an smaller group selected from a larger population
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target population
the entire set of people a researcher wants to generalize their results to
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representative
an accurate reflection of a larger group
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random sample
a sample for which everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being chosen
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opportunity sample
a sample drawn from the target population because they are available and convenient
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ethical considerations
issues of research that take into account the welfare of particpants
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informed consent
when participants agree to take part in a study and also know what the aim of the study i
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right to withdraw
when participants are allowed to stop participating in a study or can stop the study all together
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confidentiality
protecting the identity or participants by nothing revealing names and other details
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experiment
a method by which a researcher controls variables and measures their effect
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laboratory experiment
an experiment carried out in a controlled environment
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field experiment
an experiment carried out in a natural environment
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self report
when participants report their own experiences
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questionnaire
a set of pre-determined questions which are the same for all respondents
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closed questions
questions for which there are set responses to
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open questions
question for which there are no fixed responses and participants answer as they please
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interview
face to face questioning
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structured interview
an interview with pre-set questions
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unstructured interview
an interview where questions vary depending on the interviewees responses
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over observation
observing people with their knowledge
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cover observation
observing people without their knowledge
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participant observation
to observe people whilst joining in their activities
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non participant observation
to observe people from a distance
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case study
an in depth analysis of one person or group
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correlation study
a study that analyses two sets of data for a relationship
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longitudinal study
a study carried out over a long period of time
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cross sectional study
a study where two or more groups are compared, to investigate changes or differences
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quantitative data
numerical data
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qualitative data
descriptive data
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mode
the most popular score in a data set
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median
the middle score when a data set is in numerical order
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mean
the total of a data set divided by the number of scores in it
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table
a way of presenting data by summarising it under headings
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bar chart
a chart that summarises data by using bars to represent the difference frequencies of categories
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line graph
a graph that summarises data using a line to show changes in frequencies of score
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validity
reflecting the truth
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ecological validity
reflecting a real life situation
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reliability
consistency, replicates itself
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inter rater reliability
when two or more researchers agree on their findings
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demand characteristics
cues in an experiment which give away the aim
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observer effect
when participants behave differently from normal because they know they are being observed
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social desirability
this describes the response given when participants say what they believe the researcher wants to hearq
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bias
only viewing things from a certain perspective
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gender bias
viewing things from the perspective of one gender
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cultural bias
viewing things from the perspective of one culture
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experimenter bias
setting up an experiment and/or interpreting the results to fit a certain idea or theory
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Card 2

Front

a statement which predicts a difference or correlation in results

Back

alternate hypothesis

Card 3

Front

a statement which predicts no difference or correlation in results

Back

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Card 4

Front

anything that is open to change

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

something that the researcher changes or manipulates

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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Comments

Olusola

Great cards!!!

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