# Research Methods

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- Created by: Laurenkeep
- Created on: 02-03-15 16:18

What is the significant level?

0.05% (95%)

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How is the number of people in a study shown in statistical form?

N

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What do RHO and U standard for in inferential tests?

Spearmans rank- RHO mann-Whitney- U (observed value)

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What inferential test would you use for a correlation?

spearmans

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What inferential test would you use for working out the order of data?

Mann-Whitney

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What is meant by "nominal data"?

Seperate data groups

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What is meant by "ordinal" data?

Data in an ordered format

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What is a null hypothesis?

Statement of no difference in the outcome

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What inferential test would you use for repeated measures?

Wilcoxon

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What inferential test would you use for group design?

Chi-Square

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What is meant by "interval" data?

the data that is measured using units

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What are "type 1 and type 2" errors?

Type 1 errors ignore the truth and type 2 accepts hypothesis when they are wrong

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What does spearmans RHO do?

Determines whether the correlation between two co-variables is significant or not

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What is independent group design?

two or more groups of participants

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What is repeated measures design?

Using the same group of participants throughout

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What are the 5 parts to designing a study?

Abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion.

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what is the mean?

all the data added together and divided by the amount of beginning data

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What is the mode?

most common number in a set of data

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What is the median?

the middle number from a set of data

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When do you use a scattergram?

correlations

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When do you use a bar chart?

Numbers or measurements

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How do you work out the range?

the biggest figure - the smallest figure= the range

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What is meant by the term "standard deviation"?

Distance from the mean

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What does the term "reflexitivity" mean?

the extent that a researchers process reflects a researchers values

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What are 2 advantages of QUANTITATIVE data?

easy to analyse and produces a clear conclusion

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What are 2 weaknesses of QUANTITATIVE data?

Oversimplifies and humanly insignificant

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What are 2 strengths of QUALITATIVE data?

represents true behaviour and has rich detail

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What are 2 weaknesses of QUALITATIVE data?

Difficult to analyse and subjective

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What is an aim?

An aim is what you plan to achieve

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What is science

A systematic approach to creating knowledge

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What is meant by the term "replicability"?

A way to demonstrate validity of an observation through repetition

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What do the terms "induction" and "deduction" mean?

induction- reasoning from the particular to the general. Deduction- reasoning from the general to the particular

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What is meant by "peer review"?

The assessment of scientific research by other people in the same field of work

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What are the 3 main purposes for peer review?

1. Allocation of research funding 2. Publication of research in scientific journals/books 3. Assessing the research rating of university departments

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What is a Labaoratory experiement?

high internal validity- low ecological validity

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What is a field experiment?

conducted in a natural environment- no control over outside issues

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What is a natural experiment?

naturally occurring IV'S but does show causality

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What are two self-report measures?

Questionnaires and unstructured interviews

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What is a case study?

A detailed study on ONE person

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What is a pilot study?

A small trial run of the bigger research focus

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What is meant by the term "validity"?

Truth

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What is meant by the term "reliability"?

Whether or not you get the same result each time

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What is external validity?

Things outside of the studies control

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What are three sampling methods?

Snowball, volunteer and opportunity

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What is random sampling?

Picking names out of a hat

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What is snowball sampling?

You ask existing participants to ask others to help

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What is stratified sampling?

Sub-groups (boys and girls)

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What are ethical guidlines?

rules and regulations you have to follow to make sure your study is ethically sound

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What are 3 ethical issues?

harm, deception and informed consent

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What are 2 codes of conduct in relation to ethics?

Responsibility and Respect

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What is an IV?

independent variable-

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What is a DV?

Dependent variable-

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What are 2 experimental designs?

independent group design and matched pairs design

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What is 1 strength and 1 weakness of peer review?

Anonymity allows honesty and theirs not always someone available

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Why do we use inferential tests?

they are more accurate and we can show clear results from the data that is produced.

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

How is the number of people in a study shown in statistical form?

#### Back

N

### Card 3

#### Front

What do RHO and U standard for in inferential tests?

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

What inferential test would you use for a correlation?

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

What inferential test would you use for working out the order of data?

#### Back

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