Research Methods

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What is the significant level?
0.05% (95%)
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How is the number of people in a study shown in statistical form?
N
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What do RHO and U standard for in inferential tests?
Spearmans rank- RHO mann-Whitney- U (observed value)
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What inferential test would you use for a correlation?
spearmans
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What inferential test would you use for working out the order of data?
Mann-Whitney
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What is meant by "nominal data"?
Seperate data groups
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What is meant by "ordinal" data?
Data in an ordered format
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What is a null hypothesis?
Statement of no difference in the outcome
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What inferential test would you use for repeated measures?
Wilcoxon
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What inferential test would you use for group design?
Chi-Square
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What is meant by "interval" data?
the data that is measured using units
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What are "type 1 and type 2" errors?
Type 1 errors ignore the truth and type 2 accepts hypothesis when they are wrong
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What does spearmans RHO do?
Determines whether the correlation between two co-variables is significant or not
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What is independent group design?
two or more groups of participants
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What is repeated measures design?
Using the same group of participants throughout
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What are the 5 parts to designing a study?
Abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion.
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what is the mean?
all the data added together and divided by the amount of beginning data
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What is the mode?
most common number in a set of data
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What is the median?
the middle number from a set of data
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When do you use a scattergram?
correlations
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When do you use a bar chart?
Numbers or measurements
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How do you work out the range?
the biggest figure - the smallest figure= the range
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What is meant by the term "standard deviation"?
Distance from the mean
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What does the term "reflexitivity" mean?
the extent that a researchers process reflects a researchers values
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What are 2 advantages of QUANTITATIVE data?
easy to analyse and produces a clear conclusion
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What are 2 weaknesses of QUANTITATIVE data?
Oversimplifies and humanly insignificant
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What are 2 strengths of QUALITATIVE data?
represents true behaviour and has rich detail
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What are 2 weaknesses of QUALITATIVE data?
Difficult to analyse and subjective
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What is an aim?
An aim is what you plan to achieve
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What is science
A systematic approach to creating knowledge
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What is meant by the term "replicability"?
A way to demonstrate validity of an observation through repetition
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What do the terms "induction" and "deduction" mean?
induction- reasoning from the particular to the general. Deduction- reasoning from the general to the particular
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What is meant by "peer review"?
The assessment of scientific research by other people in the same field of work
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What are the 3 main purposes for peer review?
1. Allocation of research funding 2. Publication of research in scientific journals/books 3. Assessing the research rating of university departments
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What is a Labaoratory experiement?
high internal validity- low ecological validity
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What is a field experiment?
conducted in a natural environment- no control over outside issues
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What is a natural experiment?
naturally occurring IV'S but does show causality
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What are two self-report measures?
Questionnaires and unstructured interviews
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What is a case study?
A detailed study on ONE person
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What is a pilot study?
A small trial run of the bigger research focus
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What is meant by the term "validity"?
Truth
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What is meant by the term "reliability"?
Whether or not you get the same result each time
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What is external validity?
Things outside of the studies control
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What are three sampling methods?
Snowball, volunteer and opportunity
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What is random sampling?
Picking names out of a hat
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What is snowball sampling?
You ask existing participants to ask others to help
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What is stratified sampling?
Sub-groups (boys and girls)
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What are ethical guidlines?
rules and regulations you have to follow to make sure your study is ethically sound
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What are 3 ethical issues?
harm, deception and informed consent
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What are 2 codes of conduct in relation to ethics?
Responsibility and Respect
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What is an IV?
independent variable-
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What is a DV?
Dependent variable-
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What are 2 experimental designs?
independent group design and matched pairs design
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What is 1 strength and 1 weakness of peer review?
Anonymity allows honesty and theirs not always someone available
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Why do we use inferential tests?
they are more accurate and we can show clear results from the data that is produced.
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How is the number of people in a study shown in statistical form?

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N

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What do RHO and U standard for in inferential tests?

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What inferential test would you use for a correlation?

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What inferential test would you use for working out the order of data?

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