Research Methods

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  • Created by: Rehmattx
  • Created on: 01-02-15 15:16
Case Studies
In depth, 1 person/group/organisation, wide range of sources, accurate, hard to generalise, ethical issues
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lab experiments
carefully controlled, standardised procedure, cheaper, less time consuming, hawthorne effects, lacks mundane realism
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Natural Experiments
Environment of pps, study real problems, extraneous variables, pps may know theyre being studied
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Field experiments
everyday environment, difficult to control extraneous variables, real life setting
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Volunteer Sampling
pps who volunteered for experiment - willing pps, inexpensive, may be seen by one bias, pps may be more motivated - more time on their hands
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Opportunity sample
pps who happen to be around all the time - easiest method of sampling, may not be willing pps, variety of pps, sample drawn from a small part of pps
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Random Sampling
pps chosen using a random technique - completely unbiased, easy to get a sample, sample may be too small, impossible to truly represent every group in a population
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Independent Groups Design
2 groups, pps only take part in one condition - no order effects, reduced likeliness of demand characteristics, individual differences can affect the result, difficult to match exactly
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Repeated Measures Design
pps take part in both conditions, 1 group - holds individual differences constant so control for them, needs fewer pps, order efects, increased chance of demand characteristics
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Matched Pairs Design
pps are matched in each condition for the characteristics that may affect their performance - no order effects, time consuming, extraneous variables
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Aim
what you plan to do
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Hypothesis
Precise statement about what's going to happen with variables
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Directional Hypothesis
Saying exactly what will happen in hypothesis
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Non-directional hypothesis
hypothesis where you know something will happen but you're not sure of what exactly
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Operationalised variables
variables that must be defined in a way that can be measured/tested
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Independent Variables
The variable that needs to be changed in order to observe its effects on the DV.
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Dependent Variables
Variables that are measured in the end
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Mundane Realism
Same task to be done in reality
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Generalisability
Ability to generalise results to other studies
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Population Validity
whether an experiment can/ cant be applied to a worldwide population due to a sample bias
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Ecological validity
When artificial experiments cant be applied to every day life
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Historical Validity
When an experiment can/cant be applied to recent time due to the time that it was originally carried out in
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Extraneous Variables
factors that can't be controlled and end up affecting the result of the outcome
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Order effects
An extraneous variable arising from the order in which conditions are presented.
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Demand Characteristics
A cue that makes pps aware of what the researcher expects to find. They may change the outcome as pps may change their behaviour to conform to the expectations
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Social Desirability Bias
A tendency for pps to answer questions so they sound better
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Hawthorne effects
when pps alter their behaviour as a result of knowing theyre being watched
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Investigator Effects
Anything that the investigator/experimenter does that has an effect on a pps performance in a study
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Ethics
Consent, Deception, Debriefing, Withdrawal from Investigation, Confidentiality, Protection of pps, Observational Research, Giving Advice, Colleagues
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Naturalistic Observation
Studied in a natural setting where everything has been left as it is
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Controlled Observation
Some variables are controlled by the researcher. pps may know they're being observed which can lead to Hawthorne Effects
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Structured Observation
Researcher uses 'systems' to organise observations such as behavioural categories & sampling procedures (where and when you're observing)
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Unstructured Observation
Researcher records all relevant behaviour but there is no system
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Sampling Procedures - event sampling
Counting the number of times a certain behaviour or event occurs in a target individual or individuals
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Sampling Procedures - Time Sampling
Recording behaviours in a given time frame
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Questionnaire
Data collected through the use of written questions
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Interview
A research method or technique that involves a face-to-face, 'real-time' interaction with another individual and results in the collection of data
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closed questions
Questions where respondednts choose out of a range of answers, quantitave data, easier to analyse than open questions
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open questions
Questions that allow respondents to give their own answers, qualitative data
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structured interview
any interview in which the questions are decided in advance
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unstructured interview
The interview starts out with some general aims and maybe some questions, and lets the interviewee's answers guide subsequent questions
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

carefully controlled, standardised procedure, cheaper, less time consuming, hawthorne effects, lacks mundane realism

Back

lab experiments

Card 3

Front

Environment of pps, study real problems, extraneous variables, pps may know theyre being studied

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

everyday environment, difficult to control extraneous variables, real life setting

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

pps who volunteered for experiment - willing pps, inexpensive, may be seen by one bias, pps may be more motivated - more time on their hands

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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