Research Methods

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Independent Variable
Variable manipulated by the researcher, and has direct effect on the DV
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Dependent Variable
Affected by changes on the IV
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Extraneous Variable
Any other variable other than the IV that might affect the DV
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Case study: Effect of alcohol (IV) on short-term memory span (DV). What is the experimental condition?
Participants are given predetermined quantity of alcohol and tested.
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Case study: Effect of alcohol (IV) on short-term memory span (DV). What is the control condition?
Participants are given no alcohol and tested.
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Lab experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Highly controlled conditions.
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Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
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Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
8 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
9 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossib
10 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
11 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
12 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
13 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural sett
14 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
15 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
16 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
17 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
18 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
19 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
20 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
21 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
22 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
23 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
24 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
25 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
26 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
27 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
28 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
29 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
30 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
31 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
32 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
33 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
34 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
35 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
36 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
37 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
38 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
39 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
40 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
41 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
42 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
43 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
44 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
45 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
46 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
47 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
48 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
49 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
50 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
51 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
52 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
53 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
54 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
55 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
56 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
57 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
58 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
59 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
60 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
61 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
62 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
63 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
64 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
65 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
66 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
67 of 342
Positive correlation
One i
68 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
69 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
70 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
71 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
72 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
73 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
74 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
75 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
76 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
77 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
78 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
79 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
80 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
81 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
82 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
83 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
84 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
85 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
86 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
87 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
88 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
89 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
90 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
91 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
92 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
93 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
94 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
95 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
96 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
97 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
98 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
99 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
100 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
101 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
102 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
103 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
104 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
105 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
106 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
107 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
108 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
109 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
110 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
111 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
112 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
113 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Cond
114 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
115 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
116 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
117 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
118 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
119 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
120 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
121 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
122 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
123 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
124 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
125 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
126 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
127 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
128 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
129 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
130 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
131 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
132 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
133 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
134 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
135 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
136 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
137 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
138 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
139 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
140 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
141 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
142 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
143 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
144 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
145 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
146 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
147 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
148 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
149 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
150 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
151 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
152 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
153 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
154 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
155 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
156 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
157 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
158 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
159 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
160 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
161 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
162 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
163 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
164 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
165 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
166 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher
167 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
168 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
169 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
170 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
171 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
172 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
173 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
174 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
175 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
176 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
177 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
178 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
179 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
180 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
181 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
182 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
183 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
184 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate
185 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
186 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
187 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
188 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
189 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
190 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
191 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
192 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
193 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
194 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
195 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
196 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
197 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
198 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
199 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
200 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
201 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
202 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate manipulation of variables
203 of 342
Three strengths of naturalistic observations
- Participants usually behave naturally - High ecological validity -
204 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
205 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
206 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
207 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
208 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
209 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
210 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
211 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
212 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
213 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
214 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
215 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
216 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
217 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
218 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
219 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
220 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
221 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate manipulation of variables
222 of 342
Three strengths of naturalistic observations
- Participants usually behave naturally - High ecological validity - Useful preliminary research tool (suggests hypothesis for future research)
223 of 342
A weakness of naturalistic observations
- No control over extraneous variables
224 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
225 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
226 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
227 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
228 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
229 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
230 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
231 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
232 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
233 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
234 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
235 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
236 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
237 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
238 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
239 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
240 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
241 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate manipulation of variables
242 of 342
Three strengths of naturalistic observations
- Participants usually behave naturally - High ecological validity - Useful preliminary research tool (suggests hypothesis for future research)
243 of 342
A weakness of naturalistic observations
- No control over extraneous variables
244 of 342
Three ethical issues of naturalistic observations
- Privacy - Confidentiality - Consent
245 of 342
Controlled observation
R
246 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
247 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
248 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
249 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
250 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
251 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
252 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
253 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
254 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
255 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
256 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
257 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
258 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
259 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
260 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
261 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
262 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
263 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate manipulation of variables
264 of 342
Three strengths of naturalistic observations
- Participants usually behave naturally - High ecological validity - Useful preliminary research tool (suggests hypothesis for future research)
265 of 342
A weakness of naturalistic observations
- No control over extraneous variables
266 of 342
Three ethical issues of naturalistic observations
- Privacy - Confidentiality - Consent
267 of 342
Controlled observation
Researcher observes in controlled environment, often involves manipulation
268 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
269 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
270 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
271 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
272 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
273 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
274 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
275 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
276 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
277 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
278 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
279 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
280 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
281 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
282 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
283 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
284 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
285 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate manipulation of variables
286 of 342
Three strengths of naturalistic observations
- Participants usually behave naturally - High ecological validity - Useful preliminary research tool (suggests hypothesis for future research)
287 of 342
A weakness of naturalistic observations
- No control over extraneous variables
288 of 342
Three ethical issues of naturalistic observations
- Privacy - Confidentiality - Consent
289 of 342
Controlled observation
Researcher observes in controlled environment, often involves manipulation of variables
290 of 342
A strength of controlled observations
Higher level of consent
291 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
292 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
293 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
294 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
295 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
296 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
297 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
298 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
299 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
300 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
301 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
302 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
303 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
304 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
305 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
306 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
307 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
308 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate manipulation of variables
309 of 342
Three strengths of naturalistic observations
- Participants usually behave naturally - High ecological validity - Useful preliminary research tool (suggests hypothesis for future research)
310 of 342
A weakness of naturalistic observations
- No control over extraneous variables
311 of 342
Three ethical issues of naturalistic observations
- Privacy - Confidentiality - Consent
312 of 342
Controlled observation
Researcher observes in controlled environment, often involves manipulation of variables
313 of 342
A strength of controlled observations
Higher level of consent
314 of 342
Two weaknesses of controlled observations
- Participants usually know they are being observed - Won't behave naturally
315 of 342
Three ethical issues with controlled observations
- Informed consent - Right to withdraw - C
316 of 342
Three strengths of lab experiments
- High level of control of IV and EVs. - Can infer cause and effect. - Replicable.
317 of 342
Two weaknesses of lab experiments
- Low validity due to artificiality. - Strong chance of investigator and experimenter effects.
318 of 342
An ethical issue of lab experiments
Impossible to gain fully informed consent, due to demand characteristics
319 of 342
Field experiment
Directly manipulates IV to see effect on DV. Takes place in natural setting.
320 of 342
Three strengths of field experiments
- Can infer cause and effect. - Higher ecological validity. - Reduction in participant effects (demand characteristics).
321 of 342
Four weaknesses of field experiments
- Difficult to replicate. - Less control over EVs. - Less control over participant sample. - Can be more time consuming.
322 of 342
Three ethical issues of field experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Deception
323 of 342
Quasi/Natural Experiment
Takes advantage of naturally occurring event
324 of 342
Two strengths of quasi experiments
- Useful when impossible to manipulate IV - High ecological validity
325 of 342
Four weaknesses of quasi experiments
- Less control of participant sample - Less possible to infer cause and effect - Lack of control over EV (low internal validity) - Difficult to replicate
326 of 342
Three ethical issues of quasi experiments
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidientiality
327 of 342
Correlation
Technique for analysing data by measuring strength of the relationship between two variables
328 of 342
Positive correlation
One variable increases as the other variable increases
329 of 342
Negative correlation
One variable increases as the other variable decreases
330 of 342
Two strengths of correlational research
- Can establish strength of a relationship between variables and measure it precisely. - Allows researchers to investigate things that can't be manipulated for ethical reasons.
331 of 342
Two weaknesses of correlational research
- Cannot establish cause and effect - Can only measure linear experiments
332 of 342
Three ethical issues of correlational research
- Consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality (people are unaware of data being used)
333 of 342
Naturalistic observation
Researcher observes participants in their own environment, no deliberate manipulation of variables
334 of 342
Three strengths of naturalistic observations
- Participants usually behave naturally - High ecological validity - Useful preliminary research tool (suggests hypothesis for future research)
335 of 342
A weakness of naturalistic observations
- No control over extraneous variables
336 of 342
Three ethical issues of naturalistic observations
- Privacy - Confidentiality - Consent
337 of 342
Controlled observation
Researcher observes in controlled environment, often involves manipulation of variables
338 of 342
A strength of controlled observations
Higher level of consent
339 of 342
Two weaknesses of controlled observations
- Participants usually know they are being observed - Won't behave naturally
340 of 342
Three ethical issues with controlled observations
- Informed consent - Right to withdraw - Confidentiality
341 of 342
Structured interview
Participants are asked the same question, provides quantative data
342 of 342

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Dependent Variable

Back

Affected by changes on the IV

Card 3

Front

Extraneous Variable

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Case study: Effect of alcohol (IV) on short-term memory span (DV). What is the experimental condition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Case study: Effect of alcohol (IV) on short-term memory span (DV). What is the control condition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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