Research methods

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What is meant by 'Independant variable', 'Dependant variable' and 'Extraneous variable'?
I: Thing you change across across your two conditions D: Thing you measure across your two conditions EV: Things that could affect dependant variable that you can control (stop having influence)
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What are the IV, DV and EV if we were investigating the effect of drinking on driving ablity
IV: Whether the participants drink alcohol or not DV: Driving ability EV: May be naturally poor drivers; ages/tolerance/weather conditions
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What is a hypothesis?
It's a testable statement of prediction, good ones are comparative statements
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What is a directional and a non-directional hypothesis? Give an example for both
D:If past research has shown results go a certain way - People who drink wil drive worse than people who dont ND: Don't state the direction results would go - There will be a difference in driving ability of those drivers who drink and those who dont
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What is an 'Aim'? & Give an example
In an experiment the aim is to investigate the effect of IV on DV - To investigate the effect of alcohol on driving ability
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What is a null hypothesis? Give an example
It states that your predicted effect will not occur; there will be no significant difference between results of two groups - Will be no significant difference in the driving ability of those who drink and those who don't
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Name the three types of experiments
Lab - IV manipulated to observe DV in controlled environment Field - IV manipulated to observe effect on DV in natural setting Natural - IV manipulated naturally in a natural environment
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Lab experiments
+High control of extraneous variables; controled setting +Easy to replicate; you can control EV -Low ecological validity; cant generalise -Demand characteristics; participants more able to guess aim
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Field experiments
+Increased ecological validity; takes place in real life setting + Less demand characteristics; less likely to guess aim -Less contol over EV; not controlled enviro -Less easy to replicate; less control over EV
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Natural experiments
+High ecological validity; take place in RW setting; focus on natural events +No demand characteristics; dont know theyre in study so wont guess aims -No control over EV;many things could affect validity of results -Hard to replicate;natural events
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Name the three experimental designs
Independent - different groups in each of 2 conditions & Repeated Measures - same group in each of two conditions Matched participants - different groups in each condition, pairs are matched on key characteristics, each member in different conditions
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Independent groups
+No order effects: only do 1 condition so less likely to be affected by boredom, No demand characteristics; they only take part in 1 condition - Individual differences between groups could affect results
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Repeated measures
+ No individual differences; both participants take part in both conditions + Cheapest design; only have to recruit one group of participants - Order effects; may get bored or may do better 2nd time; pracitice - Demand characteristics;in 2 conditions
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Matched Participants
+ Less individual differences; matched on criteria to make them more simular + No order effects; only need to do 1 of 2 conditions so wont get bored - Expensive and time consuming; pay 2 groups & take time matching them
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Name three non-experimental research methods
Correlational analysis is a stats technique that looks @ strength and type of relationship between 2 variables (+0-1) (-0--1) Naturalistic observation involves watching people in NE Questionnaire usally closed questions & produce quantitative data
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Correlational analysis & Naturalistic observation
CA + Easy to measure relationship between 2 variables - Correlation doesnt necessarily mean one causes other NO + Ecological validity + No demand characteristics - Low control of extraneous variables; not controlled
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Questionnaire survey
+ Quick and easy to collect data + Easy to analyse data from them; closed questions - Social desirability bias; people may not answer truthfully - Researcher isnt around to clarify any questions
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What are interviews and case studies?
I: Face to face interaction, structured(prep in advance), semi (some prep), unstructured (no prep), produces qualitative data; open questions & CS: in depth study of an individual/small group of people-interviewing&collecting data from their lives
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Interviews
+ More in depth analysis than questionnaires; open questions allow people to give more detail - Hard to analyse; open questions=more information - Soical desirablity bias; they'll feel more pressured to put themselves in a more pos light
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Case studies
+ More in depth analysis than other techniques; variety of techniques + High ecological validity; involve people in real world situations - Problems with generalising results to rest of population
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What is the aim of sampling?
To make your sample represent the target population
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What is random sampling?
When you ensure that every member of your target population has an equal chance of being selected, usually done by putting names in a hat
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Evaluate 'random sampling' (Positives and Negatives)
+ Provides a more representitive sample; it's unbiased; each member of the population has same chance of being picked - Time consuming
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What is volunteer sampling?
Recruiting participants by having them respond to an advert you put up
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Evaluate 'volunteer sampling' (Positives and Negatives)
+ Easy to carry out; you just put up an advert - Can produce a non-rep sample; they will be highly motivated; not everyone wants to sign up for a study so it only reflects enthusiastic people
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What is opportunity sampling?
Selecting the most easily avaliable group of people (most use students; conducted in Uni settings)
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Evaluate 'opportunity sampling' (Pos and Neg)
+ Easy to carry out; you're just using the first people you find - Opportunity will produce a non-rep sample; you're just recruiting the most readily available group of people
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What is stratified sampling?
Ensuring the proportions of people in your sample are the same as those in your target population
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Evaluate 'stratified sampling' (Pos and Neg)
+ Representitive sample; most simular to target population - Time consuming; takes time to ensure you have same proportions of people in your sample that are in your target population
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What is reliablity?
Whether something is consistant
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How to you test whether research is reliable?
Test-retest: repeat study again to find out if it produces same result on different occasions & Scorer reliablity: whether observers are consistent in ratings
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What is validity?
Relates to whether something measures what it intends to
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What is Internal and External validity?
I: if the change in DV is caused by change in IV. E: shows results are accurate beyond research setting (can be generalised)
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Name the three types of external validity
Population, ecological and historical
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How can you tell if something is valid?
You carry out either: Predictive validity test - does it accuratly predict future performance, Face validity - does the test look the part or Concurrent validity - performance on measure simular to performance on an existing measure
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What are pilot studies?
A small scale version of your investigation which allows you to identify and deal with flaws, ethical issues, pracitice your investigation and investigate whether a full scale version is worth-while
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What are demand characteristics?
Cues in an experiment that signify to participants what the aims are. The participents will therefore not act naturally
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What is counterbalancing?
Used to overcome order effects
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What is single blind procedure & a double blind?
SB: Participents not knowing aim of investigation & DB: both investigator and participent not knowing the aim of the study
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What is standardised instructions and procedure?
SI: when you tell participents same thing SP: when you get all participants doing same thing
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What is the Hawthorne effect?
participant's behaviour changing as they realise they're being observed
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Name some ethical issues
Deception: shouldnt lie Lack of informed consent: not ethical to ask permission & to tell them what study is about, Harm to participants- psych and phys harm Privacy & Confidentuality; shouldnt reveal identity of participants
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Ways of dealing with ethical issues
Debriefing, presumtive consent, prior general consent, right to withdraw data at end of study, only carry out in public places, no personal questions
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What is a frequency polygon?
It is used to display more than one set of data & plot changes overtime
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What are the IV, DV and EV if we were investigating the effect of drinking on driving ablity

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IV: Whether the participants drink alcohol or not DV: Driving ability EV: May be naturally poor drivers; ages/tolerance/weather conditions

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What is a hypothesis?

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Card 4

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What is a directional and a non-directional hypothesis? Give an example for both

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What is an 'Aim'? & Give an example

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