Research Methods

Knowledge gained from experiments or observations
Empirical
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Not letting what researchers already think or want to impact the research
Objectivity
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Reasoning from the particular to the general
Induction
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Reasoning from the general to the particular
Deduction
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Kuhn- Psychology cannot be a science because it doesn't have a...
Paradigm
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A paradigm is a unified set of...
Assumptions
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Other researchers judge this in peer review
Validity
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Peer review helps to identify...
Flaws
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A main purpose of peer review is to allocate this
Funding
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Peer review is a good way to detect...
Fraud
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One criticism of peer review may be that not all judges are...
Objective
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Purpose of the abstract
Summarise the whole investigation
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What does the introduction section include?
Previous research --> hypothesis
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Sub-categories of the method section
Design, Participants, Materials, Procedure
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Two parts of results section
Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics
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What do you accept or reject in the discussion section?
Null Hypothesis
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What else is in the discussion section?
Limitations, modifications, implications
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Name the measures of central tendency
Mean, median and mode
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Name the measure of dispersion
Range, Standard deviaiton
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Graph used for nominal data
Bar chart (bars DON'T touch!)
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Significance level used in psychology
5%
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Error made if the significance level is too high
Type 1
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Allows less possibility that the result occured by chance
Type 2
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Falsely reject the null hypothesis
Type 1
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Falsely accept the null hypothesis
Type 2
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Test for correlations
Spearman's Rho
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Test for nominal data, repeated measures
Sign test
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Test for ordinal data, independent groups
Mann-Whitney
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Consistency, replicability
Reliability
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Measuring what it claims to measure
Validity
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Consistency within a measure
Internal reliability
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Consistency over time
External reliability
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Figure that shows good observer reliability
0.8 or more
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Method to assess internal reliability
Split-half method
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Method to assess external reliability
Test-retest method
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How to improve observer reliability
Operationalisation of variables, training
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How to improve test reliability (internal & external)
Altering parts of the test to improve correlation
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3 examples of external validity
Population, ecological and temporal
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Ways to increase internal validity
Reduce extraneous variables, demand characteristics etc. and use standardised instructions/procedures
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Face validity
Does it look legit?!
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Content validity
Theory behind the content of the test is assessed by experts
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Concurrent validity
Compared to an existing method already known to be valid
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Not letting what researchers already think or want to impact the research

Back

Objectivity

Card 3

Front

Reasoning from the particular to the general

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reasoning from the general to the particular

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Kuhn- Psychology cannot be a science because it doesn't have a...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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