Research methods

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Extraneous variables
Any variable apart from the IV that has the potential to affect the DV. Has the ability to confound the results so needs to be kept constant or eliminated.
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Participant variables
Anything connected with the participants. EG: age, height, intelligence. They may explain a difference in performance between groups in an experiment.
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Situational variables
Connected with the research situation. EG: temperature, time of day. These may explain a difference in performance between groups independent of the IV.
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Investigator/Experimenter effects
The investigator unknowingly communicates information about how to perform on the task. EG: from their tone of voice, appearance. Something about the experimenter may affect participant responses, such as age.
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Demand characteristics
Cues that help the participant to work out what the hypothesis is. EG: from the environment. This can make them behave differently in order to either please the experimenter or deliberately mess up the results (the screw-you effect).
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Single blind technique
Participants don't know what condition they are in so don't change their behaviour.
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Double blind technique
Neither participant or experimenter know what each condition represents or what the hypothesis is. This requires a research assistant to carry out data collection for the main researcher.
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Standardisation
All conditions and materials should be the same for participants as much as possible. This is to ensure situational variables are minimised.
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Reducing all of these effects: Single blind technique
Participants don't know what condition they are in so don't change their behaviour.
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Reducing all of these effects: Double blind technique
Neither participant or experimenter know what each condition represents or what the hypothesis is. This requires a research assistant to carry out data collection for the main researcher.
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Reducing all of these effects: Standardisation
All conditions and materials should be the same for participants as much as possible. This is to ensure situational variables are minimised.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Anything connected with the participants. EG: age, height, intelligence. They may explain a difference in performance between groups in an experiment.

Back

Participant variables

Card 3

Front

Connected with the research situation. EG: temperature, time of day. These may explain a difference in performance between groups independent of the IV.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The investigator unknowingly communicates information about how to perform on the task. EG: from their tone of voice, appearance. Something about the experimenter may affect participant responses, such as age.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Cues that help the participant to work out what the hypothesis is. EG: from the environment. This can make them behave differently in order to either please the experimenter or deliberately mess up the results (the screw-you effect).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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