Research Methods

Control
How much relevant extraneous variables are controlled for
1 of 57
Extraneous Variables
Another variable which can cause a change in the dependant variable-the researcher may therefore not have tested what they intended to test
2 of 57
Independent Variable
What the experimenter changes
3 of 57
Dependant Variable
The variable which is measured-
4 of 57
Mundane Realism/Ecological Validity
How much a study mirrors the real world
5 of 57
Internal Validity
What goes on INSIDE the study-All about control and realism-High internal validity = High mundane realism/Did the IV produce the DV change/extraneous variables are controlled for and ensure you are testing what you meant to test
6 of 57
External Validity
How much you can generalise the results-directly affected by internal validity
7 of 57
Ecological Validity
Being able to generalise the results to different places/settings
8 of 57
Population Validity
Being able to generalise the results to different people or groups
9 of 57
Historical Validity
Being able to generalise the results to different time periods
10 of 57
Informed Consent
An ethical issue-participants have the right to be told about the nature and purpose of the research and their role, they can make a choice about whether or not to participate
11 of 57
Confidentiality
An ethical issue-participants have the right to have their personal information protected, this sometimes makes it hard for researchers to publish the findings- anonymity helps deal with this
12 of 57
Data Protection Act
This makes confidentiality a legal right, it says data can only be recorded if participants arent identified
13 of 57
Deception
An ethical issue-When a studies true aims are not revealed to the participants-they cannot give true informed consent
14 of 57
Protection From Harm
An ethical issue-Participants should not experience any negative physical or psychological effects during the study-Acceptable if the risk is no greater than that of one which could occur in real life-
15 of 57
Right to Withdraw
An ethical issue-Participants have the right to withdraw from participation in the study if they are uncomfortable, and can also withhold the data they have produced
16 of 57
Privacy
An ethical issue-A zone of inaccessibility to the researcher-Researcher should avoid invasion of privacy
17 of 57
Operationalisation
Writing a hypothesis/IV/DV in a testable/measurable/specific form
18 of 57
Hypothesis
A precise and testable statement of the relationship between two variables
19 of 57
Directional Hypothesis
States which 'direction' your results will go in
20 of 57
Non-directional Hypothesis
Only states a difference between two sets of results/conditions/people-doesnt state a positive or negative change, just a difference
21 of 57
Pilot Study
A small scale trial version of the experiment, done before the real thing-you can see if things wont work in the study
22 of 57
Confederate
A person in the study who is not a real participant-has been instructed how to behave-can act as an IV
23 of 57
Repeated Measures Design
Each participant takes part in every condition that is being tested-You may need to use counterbalancing/single blind
24 of 57
Independent Groups Design
Using random techniques, participants are allocated to different groups which each take part in a different condition
25 of 57
Matched Pairs Design
Two different groups of participants are used, each participant is grouped with another in the other group by key variables that could affect the experiment-e.g. age/gender/IQ
26 of 57
Order Effect
An extraneous variable-The first task may influence the second task-occurs in repeated measures design-e.g/might perform better in the second task because the have had practice
27 of 57
Counterbalancing`
AB BA/ABBA
28 of 57
Single Blind
The participant is not aware of the aims of the condition that they are in in the experiment
29 of 57
Demand Characteristics
When participants become aware of what the researcher is experimenting/expecting to find-they may change their behaviour to conform to expectations
30 of 57
Experimental Realism
How much participants become involved in the experiment and become less influence by cues about how to behave
31 of 57
Social Desirability Bias
When participants answer questions/do actions that show them in the best light-might not be what they really think/want to do
32 of 57
Investigator Effect
Actions/things that an experimenter may do that has an effect on the participants performance, e.g leading questions/the gender of the investigator
33 of 57
Measure of Central Tendency
A statistic that provides information about a 'typical response' from a data set
34 of 57
Measure of Dispersion
A statistic that provides information about how spread out results are
35 of 57
Quantitative Data Analysis
Representing trends from numerical data-e.g/ Measure of Dispersion
36 of 57
Laboratory Experiment
An experiment performed in a controlled setting-Often have HIGH internal validity, LOW external validity (not always), LOW realism, but HIGh control
37 of 57
Field Experiment
An experiment done outside a lab, but the IV is still changed by the researcher-More natural, but LOWER control + ethical issues, LOW internal validity, but HIGH external validity, LESS participant effects
38 of 57
Natural Experiment
The investigator can't change the IV, it varies naturally, its effects can be observed by changes to the DV-No causal conclusions can be drawn-Participants aren't randomley allocated, reducing validity
39 of 57
Naturalistic Observation
The researcher observes behaviour w/o interfering in a natural setting, but is structured in their observations
40 of 57
Controlled Observation
Behaviour is observed under controlled conditions
41 of 57
Time Sampling
Observer records behaviour in a given time frame-e.g. Records every 30 seconds
42 of 57
Unstructured Observations
Used when the behaviour is largely unpredictable-all relevant behaviour is recorded, but with no system
43 of 57
Covert Observations
Observing people w/o their knowledge, e.g. One way mirrors in Ainsworth's Strange Situation
44 of 57
Observer Bias
What someone observes is altered by their expectations
45 of 57
Opportunity Sample
People are selected who are most easily available at the time
46 of 57
Random Sample
A random technique is used so that every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected
47 of 57
Volunteer Sample
A sample of participants where they have all been self selected-But, can produce volunteer bias-They are more motivated to do the task at hand
48 of 57
Interviewer Bias
The effect of an interviewers expectations, that may influence the respondents behaviour
49 of 57
Positive/negative Correlation
The relationship between two variables
50 of 57
Correlation Co-efficient
A number between -1 (perfect negative correlation) and +1 (perfect positive correlation) which tells us how closely the variables are linked
51 of 57
Case Studies
A detailed study about one person, group or event-Hard to generalise from-May be unreliable + biased + ethical issues-But give us a varied record of human experiences
52 of 57
Content Analysis
A study in which behaviour is observed indirectly in written or verbal material-Observing behaviour through articles that people produce-Behaviour is then categorised and may be counted
53 of 57
Attrition
When participants are lost from a study over time-could make the finished sample biased or too small
54 of 57
Control group/condition
A baseline measure against which the effects of the IV can be measured-The effects of the IV can be shown
55 of 57
Imposed Etic
When a theory/technique which has been developed in one country is then used in a different culture, which has different norms, values etc.
56 of 57
Meta-analysis
When researchers look at the findings from lots of different studies to reach a general conclusion about a particular hypothesis
57 of 57

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Another variable which can cause a change in the dependant variable-the researcher may therefore not have tested what they intended to test

Back

Extraneous Variables

Card 3

Front

What the experimenter changes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The variable which is measured-

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

How much a study mirrors the real world

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »