Research Method: Sampling techniques

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 08-03-15 10:35
What are four reasons why sociologists sample?
-To save time, -To save money, -For geographical convenience, -Impractical to survey everybody in a target population,
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What is the definiton of random sampling?
Employing a technique to ensure everyone in a target population has an equal chance of being selected,
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How can random sampling be carried out?
This can be achieved by picking names out of a hat ot through a computer,
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What is an advantage of random sampling based on its ease?
it is relatively easy to carry out,
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What is another advantage based on representativeness?
IT is the most representative as it relies on statistical odds,
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What is the last advantage about fair testing?
It ensures all people have an equal chance of being chosen,
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What is a disadvantage of random sampling based on the size?
A large sample is needed to ensure it is representative,
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What is another disadvantage based on its representativeness?
It can be unrepresentative as be chance the majority of the sample could be female,
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What is the last disadvantage based on what is required?
it requires an accurate, up to date and complete sampling frame,
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What is the definition of non random sampling?
Employing a technique to structure or engineer the selection to meet specific or predetermined criteria,
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What are the four non-random sampling techniques?
1)Quota, 2)Sratified, 3)Snowball, 4)Convenience and opportunity
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What is the definition of the quota technique?
Before the research is carried out, the researcher decided how many respondents of a particular type are required
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What is an advantage of the quota technique based on time and money?
It is quick and cheap. E.g. if someone refuses to answer, simply ask another candidate with the same characterisitics,
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What is the last advantage os quota about control?
It allows the researcher to control the variables without having a sampling frame- researcher knows how many people with particular charaterisitics to question,
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What is a disadvantage of the quota technique ethically?
Protection from harm- The researcher may have to ask a few personal questions to ascertain whether the respondent matches the criteria- This may put people off,
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What is the last disadvantage based on how fair the test it?
It is not random so each person in the population doesnt have the same chance of being asked,
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What is the definiton of stratified sampling and how it is carried out?
To split the sample down into groups and select randomly from these groups. The groups the researcher is choosing from must be the same proportion as in the target population studied,
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What is a advantage of stratified sampling based on control?
It is effective as it allows the researcher to control variables that are important to the research,
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What is the last advantage of stratified sampling based on its representativeness?
The control over variables increases precision and is therefore more likely to improve representativeness
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What is a disadvantage based on its time?
It is complex and time consuming to identify strata and sample various sub groups of the target population,
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What is the last disadvantage based on its practicality?
It is often impractical as the sampling frame doesnt contain the information required to split the population into the groups
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What is an example of the sampling frame not containing the information required to split the population into the groups?
A sociologist may be interested in looking at ethicity and steaming but schools may not keep a list of pupils by ethnic group,
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What is the definition of the snowball technique and how it is carried out?
It is a non-representative technique that involves using personal contacts to build up a sample group,
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What is the advantage of the snowball technique by time?
No sample frame is needed to quick to carry out,
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What is the last advantage based on allowing access?
It allows the researcher to investigate sensitive and secret groups e.g. drug users,
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What is a disadvantage of the snowball technique based on representativeness?
not representative as people who are included are part of a network of contacts,
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What is the last disadvantage based on generalisations?
The researcher may run out of people, making it difficult to generalise,
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What is the definition of the research technique convenience/ opportunity and how it is carried out?
A non-representative technique that involves selecting those who are conveniently available to the researcher,
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What is an advantage of convience/opportunity technique based on time and cost?
It is quick, cheap and easy to carry out as no sample frame is required,
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What is a disadvantage of this technique based on representativeness?
It is not representative as the sample isn't proportional to the target population,
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What is the last disadvantage based on bias?
It is affected by researcher bias as the choice of the person relies on the judgement of the researcher,
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Card 2

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What is the definiton of random sampling?

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Employing a technique to ensure everyone in a target population has an equal chance of being selected,

Card 3

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How can random sampling be carried out?

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Card 4

Front

What is an advantage of random sampling based on its ease?

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Card 5

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What is another advantage based on representativeness?

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