Research into Exceptional Experience

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How does psychic healing 'work'?
Energy fields are re-aligned eg therapeutic touch
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What happens as a result of psychic healing?
Reduction of anxiety through psychological support
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Expectations of benefit created by success stories which could be due to spontaneous recovery: True or false?
True - placebo effect
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What did Lyvers et al (2006) find?
No evidence for psychic healing but believers improved more.
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What did Benson et al (2006) find?
No placebo effect for prayers for cardiac recovery
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What did Wirth (1990) find?
Patients treated with therapeutic touch (TT) recovered faster than those without
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What did Rosa et al (1998) find?
TT practitioners unable to detect 'energy field' of experimenter's hand
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What did Cha et al (2001) find?
Effect of prayer on infertile women, twice as many became pregnant
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How does psychic mediumship 'work'?
Clues help medium produce accurate information without psychic ability
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What did Wiseman et al (2003) find?
Sitters are willing to be dieceived
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What did Schwartz et al (2001) find?
About 80% accuracy of medium statements
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What did Rock and Beischel (2008) find?
Mediums responding differently do dead or living loved ones
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What did O'Keefe and Wiseman (2005) find?
5 mediums gave readings to 5 sitters producing 25 statements which were rated by sitters as having little relevance
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How Schwartz et al evaluate this?
Undergraduates not suitable as a control group
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What is an out-of-body experience (OOBE)?
Paranormal - the mind and body become separated
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What did Alvarado (1982) find?
No evidence of parasomatic body having physically moved
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What did both Blanke et al (2002) and Ehrsson (2007) find?
A link between sensory disturbance and OOBEs
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Is there an issue of individual differences?
Yes, OOBEs are reported more often by believers and those prone to fantasy
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What did Green (1968) find?
Of 400 personal accounts of OOBEs, 20% were 'parasomatic' and the rest were 'asomatic'
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What did Alvarado (1982) find about the use of induced OOBEs?
Weak but occasionally startling results
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What did Blanke et al (2002) find?
Stimulation of the temporal-parietal junction of the brain resulted in OOBEs.
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Why is it difficult to study OOBEs scientifically?
Because they occur without predictability; artificially induced OOBEs are not seen as equivalent
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What explanations are reductionist?
Physiological explanations
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How did Carr (1982) explain near-death experiences (NDEs)?
Endorphins released at time of stress, lead to feelings of euphoria and detachment
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What causes REM instrusions?
Hypoxia
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What do REM intrusions do?
Disrupts integration of sensory information
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What does hypoxia do?
Triggers a flood of glutamate which is blocked by the brain to prevent neuronal death which leads to an NDE
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Why is there likely to be a psychological component?
Because not everyone experiences NDEs.
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What did cardiac survivors regard NDE as?
A spiritual experience but this doesn't mean that spiritual factors cause NDEs
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What do cultural differences and similarities suggest?
That both psychological and physiological factors are important
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What did Ring (1980) find?
That survivors describe NDE as peaceful and like a life review
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What did Nelson et al (2006) find?
NDE group more likely to experience REM intrusions
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What did Jansen (2003) find?
Ketamine can produce symptoms of NDEs and ketamine has the same effect as glutamate
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Evaluate the way in which NDEs have been studied.
Early studies were poorly controlled; interviewer bias may affect the data collected
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens as a result of psychic healing?

Back

Reduction of anxiety through psychological support

Card 3

Front

Expectations of benefit created by success stories which could be due to spontaneous recovery: True or false?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Lyvers et al (2006) find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Benson et al (2006) find?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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