Research Design

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Applied research
has the goal of solving everyday problems
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Basic research
has the goal of understanding fundamental processes of phenomena
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gaining knowledge through systematic observation
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where the simplest explanation is most likely to be true
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explanations of behaviour can be tested and falsifyed through observation
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Descriptive research
aims to provide the presence of behaviour, how frequent it occurs and relationship between behaviours
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what causes specific behaiours to occur
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Theory-driven hypothesis
based on a theory about the behaviour of interest
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Data-driven hypothesis
based on results from previous studies
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Deductive reasoning
general information to make a specific prediction
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Inductive reasoning
relying on specific information to make a general prediction
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External validity
degree to which the results apply to individuals and realistic behaviours outside the study
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Internal validity
degree to which a study provides causal information about a behaviour
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degree to which a study can be replicated
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naturalistic observation
non-invasive observation of individuals in their natural environment
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Interpreter reliability
a measure of the degree to which different observers rate behaviours in similar ways
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Closed-ended response
participants respond according to the response options
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Open-ended response
participants respond in any manner they feel is appropriate
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Systematic observation
data collection where control is exerted over the conditions under which behaviour is observed
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Archival data
analysis of pre-existing data
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Case study
involves intensive study of particiular individuals and their behaviours
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Small n design
conducted with one or few participants to better understand behaviour
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Correlational study
examines relationships between multiple dependent variables without manipulation
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Predictor variable
the dependent variable that is used to predict the score on another variable
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Outcome variable
the dependent variable that is being predicted by the predictor variable
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Postive relationship
characterised by an increase in one variable that occurs with an increase of another
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Negative relationship
characterised by an increase in one variable and a decrease in another variable
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Third-variable problem
presence of extraneous factors that can decrease the internal validity
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comparison is made but no random assignment of participants to groups occurs
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Pre-test, post-test design
behaviour is measured both before and after a condition is implemented
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involves non-ordered categorical responses
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involves ordered categorical responses
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numerical responses that are equally spaced but not ratios of each other
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numerical responses where scores are ratios of each
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Construct validity
indicates that a survey measure the behaviour it is designed to measure
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Nonverbal scale
involves pictorial response categories for participants with low verbal scales
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Face validity
when a study appears to be valid
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Presence of absence variable
involves manipulation with a level that involves the treatment and a level that does not involve treatment
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Bivalent independent variable
independent variable with two levels
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Type variable
involves manipulation of types of a treatment
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Amount variable
includes leveles with a different amount of the treatment
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Quasi-independent variable
allows a comparison of groups of participants without manipulation
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Experimenter Bias
Created when a researcher treats groups differently based on knowledge of the hypothesis
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Testing effects
Occurs when participants are tested more than once in a study with early testing effecting later testing
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Counter balance
a control used in within subjects experiements where different participants are assigned in equal numbers to the different orders of the conditions
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Hawthorne effect
when participants change their behaviour because they aware of being observed
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Demand characteristics
Due to participants changing their behaviour based on their perception of the study and its purpose
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Nuremburg code
set of ethical guidelines developed based on information gained during WWII
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forcing participants to participate in research without their consent
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a person who is part of the study but acts as though they are not to deceive the participant
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Response rate
the percentage of people out of the total number available who repsond to a survey
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Cluster sample
Chosen randomly from clusters identified in the population
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Stratified sampling
Chosen such that the proportion of the individuals with a particular characteristic is equivalent in the population and the sample
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Quota sampling
Chosen such that available individuals are chosen with equivalent proportions of individuals for a specific characteristic in the population and sample
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involves the developments, validation, and refinement of surveys
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Non-response error
a sampling error that occurs when individuals do not respond to the survey
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Coverage error
the sample chosed to complete the survey does not provide a good representation of the population
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participants chose not to complete a study
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Internal consistency
tests the relationship between scores on different items of a survey
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Split half reliability
tests scores' internal consistency; indicating if ther are similar on different sets of questions
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Cronbachs Alpha
indicates the average correlation between scores on all pairs of items on a survey
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Interaction effect
tests the effects of on independent variable at each level of another independent variable in an ANOVA
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Card 2


has the goal of understanding fundamental processes of phenomena


Basic research

Card 3


gaining knowledge through systematic observation


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Card 4


where the simplest explanation is most likely to be true


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Card 5


explanations of behaviour can be tested and falsifyed through observation


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