research methods ; sampling

what does population refer to?
large grp individuals particular rsrcher interested in studying like 30yo women in denver
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what is this often called?
target popualtion
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why?
subset of general population
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why usually not poss 2 include all members of target pop?
economic / practical reasons
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so inv selects smaller grp called?
sample
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ideally sample representative of target pop so that?
generalisation of findings possible
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in practce v diff 2 rep pop why?
diverse
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vast majority samples contain some degree?
bias`
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RANDOM SAMPLE
DGD
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what happens?
all members target pop have equal chance being selected
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to select random first what needs to be obtained?
full list of all members target population
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all names assigned?
number
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samplegenerated through use of some kind of?
lottery method
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RANDOM ; EVAL
DGDFG
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free from what kind of bias
researcher bias
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researcher has no influence over who selected preventing them from?
coosing people they think will support hypothesis
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random sampling is difficult and what?
time-consuming
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what may be extremely difficult to get?
complete list of target population
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laws of probability suggest random sampling more likley to produce what kind of sample than opportunity?
more representative
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but still possible through randomly what can happen?
pick too many niche people by accident so still unrepresentative
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selected pps may also do what?
refuse to take part
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SYSTEMATIC SAMPLE
ERDFG
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what happens?
every nth member pop selected
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sampling frame produced which is?
list of ppl in target pop org in order
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sampling system nominated or interval may be random to reduce?
bias
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researcher then does what?
works through sampling frame until sample complete
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SYSTEMATIC ; EVAL
GFD
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avoids?
researcher bias
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one system for selection est researcher has no?
influence over whose chosen
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also usually fairly?
representative
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but still possible to get unrpresentative as in?
random
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STRATIFIED SAMPLE
GDGDF
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composition of sample reflects?
proportions of ppl in each strata in target pop
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to carry out researcher first needs to identify?
different strata that make up population
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then what needs to be worked out?
proportions needed for sample to be representative
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finally pps that make up each stratum selected w/?
random sampling
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STRATIFIED ; EVAL
ERGDFG
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avoids what kind of bias?
resarcher bias
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one strata-fiedm pps that make up numbers chisen?
randomly + there4 beyond rsrchr influence
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method produces representative sample why?
designed to reflect accurately composition of pop
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means what becomes possibl?
finding generalisation
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however identified strata cannot reflect what?
all ways ppl different
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so what?
complete representation of target pop not possible
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OPPORTUNITY SAMPLE
DFGGD
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why would u do this?
rep samples of target pop hard to obtain
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so researcher just selects?
anyone willing and availiable
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saves researcher what?
time and effort
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why is it unrepresentative of the target population?
drawn from v specific area
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what is the most common sample used ever (this isn't necessary, just interesting)
psuchology students
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researcher has complete ctrl over selection pps and may avoid ppl they don't like look of which creates?
researcher bias
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VOLUNTEER SAMPLE
DGFG
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what happens here?
pps select themselves to be part of the sample
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to select how might it happen?
advert in paper / just raise hands
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VOLUNTEER ; EVAL
DFDFG
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why is it easy?
minimal input from reseearcher
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which makes less what than others?
time-consuming
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what is the big bias?
volunteer bias
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why?
asking volunteers may attract certain 'profile' of person
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is this often called?

Back

target popualtion

Card 3

Front

why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

why usually not poss 2 include all members of target pop?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

so inv selects smaller grp called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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